Спутник связи. Zhongxing 20. [Редактировать]

Китайское космическое агентство никогда не публиковало данные об этом космическом аппарате,однако по данным агентства Синьхуа данный спутник построен Китайской академией космической техники (CAST). Аппарат является частью системы спутниковой связи «Фэн Хуо».

Дополнительные наименования

#НаименованияПоиск в новостяхПоиск в документах
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Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Страна оператор(владелец) - Китай
2Страна производитель - Китай
3Тип оператора(владельца) - военные
4Все спутники связи

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12018-02-09. Космический аппарат сблизился с европейским спутником.
Согласно сообщению компании Analytical Graphics (США), которая занимается поддержкой трекинга ComSpOC (Commercial Space Operations Center), китайский экспериментальный космический аппарат Shijian-17 осуществил сближение с европейским спутником связи Inmarsat-3F3. Согласно приведенным расчетам, Shijian-17 достигнет Inmarsat-3F3 в течение дня, а примерно через три дня он уже приблизится к китайскому военному спутнику связи Chinasat-20 (Zhongxing-20).
Спутник Shijian-17, который был запущен на ГСО 3 ноября 2016 года при помощи ракеты Long March 5, имеет массу около 4-х тонн. В задачи аппарата входит проведение экспериментальной отработки новых технологий и наблюдение за другими спутниками. К настоящему моменту времени САС КА Inmarsat-3F3 и Chinasat-20 уже закончился, однако они до сих пор не выведены в резерв.Тэги: SJ 17Серия InmarsatZhongxing 20

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг2300

Характеристики орбиты

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Наклонение, град1.2
2Апогей, км35802.8
3Перигей, км35786.5
4Период, минут1436.1
5Длинный диаметр эллипса, км42165

Пусковые характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Код NSSDC2003-052A

Информация об удачном запуске

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Дата пуска2003-11-14 at 00:00:00 UTC
2Полезная нагрузка 1xZhongxing 20
3Ракета-носитель 1xВеликий поход 3A

Найдено 192 документов по запросу «Zhongxing 20». [Перейти к поиску]


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... 147 of the “Classification”. These 20 objects exhibited recent changes in... TOR-15M STATSIONAR-22 NSS-20 TELECOM-2C TELECOM 3C SYRACUSE....00 E 16.20 E 17.00 E 19.00 E 19.20 E 20.00 E 21.00... E 23.50 E 24.00 E 24.20 E 24.30 E 25.00 E 25.50 E 26.00 E 28.20 E RUS RUS RUS F F F F F I I RUS RUS....18 C1.19 C2.8 C1.20 C2.9 C1.22 C1.23....6 AfriStar 1, i=0.49 Artemis i=10.30 20.0 E 20.8 E 21.0 E 21.4 E C1.24 2C2....4 E C1.41 C2.19 C2.20 1993-076A NATO IV B, USA98... Apstar 1A, i=6.65 Sirius 3, i=3.44 Zhongxing 12, i=0.14 Yahsat 1A 50... VOLNA-19 USGON-1 USTRO-6 STATSIONAR-20 GALS-16 TOR-17M TONGASAT....9 C1.70 2012-043A Intelsat 20 68.5 E C1.69 2007-058A... 92.00 E USA USA 92.20 E CHN CHN CHN CHN 93... 92.1 E 2C2.17 2008-028A Zhongxing 9, Chinasat 9 92.2 E C1.97 1997...-052A Chinasat 2A, ZX 2A Zhongxing-20 98.3 E 98.1 E C1.103 C1... 1986-096A 2006-024A USA 20,(FLTSATC. F7), i=13.77 USA....20 2C2.21 2009-042A Asiasat 5 100.5 E C1.104 2006-038A Zhongxing....00 E INS INS INS 108.20 E G ASIASAT-CK-1 ASIASAT-1 ASIASAT-CKS....00 E CHN KOR KOR 116.20 E KOR 118.00 E INS INS....114 2011-026A 2011-026A Zhongxing 10 ZX-10, Chinasat 10....120 C1.118 2007-031A Zhongxing 6B 115.5 E C1.121 2010....127 C1.128 2010-042A Zhongxing 6A, Chinasat 6A 125.0 E C1... J RUS RUS J RUS RUS J J 128.20 E KOR 130.00 E RUS CHN...-047A Zhongxing-1A = Chinasat 1A 129.8 E C1.133 2010-064A Zhongxing 20A..., IS-701, i=0.92 Intelsat VIIA F-1, i=1.20 157.0 E 157.0 E C2.58 Ind... W USA 165.00 W USA 164.20 W USA 160.00 W RUS 159....10 W CAN CAN CAN 110.20 W USA 110.00W USA CAN... SATMEX-7 102.80 W USA 101.20 W USA 101.00 W USA USA... 100.00 W USA USA 99.20 W USA 99.00 W USA USA... C1.180 C1.181 Ind. 20 C2.64 95.00 W USA... W 87.00 W 86.50 W 85.20 W 85.10 W 85.00 W 84....224 1998-063B AMC-5 (GE5), i=2.20 80.9 W C2.70 2008-055A....50 W HOL HOL HOL HOL 20.20 W BEL 20.00 W USA USA USA....5E INTELSAT7 338.5E SATCOM-4/20.2W INTELSAT7 340E INTELSAT6 340E...-042A USA 127 (UFO F7), i=6.20 22.8 W 2C246 2012-007A SES...-019A 2002-019A NSS-7 NSS-7 20.0 W 20.0 W 2012 Dec C1.265 2001...



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... RUS RUS 16.00 E F F F F F 16.20 E I I Ntwk Space Network Name Org... TOR-15M STATSIONAR-22 NSS-20 TELECOM-2C TELECOM 3C SYRACUSE... E 17.00 E 19.00 E 19.20 E 20.00 E CHN RUS RUS LUX....2E , suspended 24.00 E 24.20 E RUS LUX TOR-7M LUX... E 23.50 E 26.00 E 28.20 E 28.5 E 29.00 E 30.00....5 E 19.2 E TLE Feb 2014 C1.20 2011-049B 2013-011A 1998...-2, i=5.3 AfriStar 1, i=1.3 Artemis i=11.0 Eutelsat 21B 20.0 E 20.6 E 21.0 E 21.4 E 21.5 E C1.24....2 E 52.5 E 52.2 E C2.21 C2.20 C1.63 C2.22 2011... VOLNA-19 USGON-1 USTRO-6 STATSIONAR-20 GALS-16 TONGASAT-H70 EUT... (Adv.Orion 3), i=6.9 PAS 7 = Intelsat 7, i=0.6 Intelsat 20 2013-062A Raduga-1 M3 70... 91.50 E 92.00 E 92.20 E 93.00 E 93.50 E 95...-028A USA 227, NROL-27,i=4.8 Zhongxing 9, Chinasat 9 92.1 E 92.2 E 2C2.18... AM-33 95.6 E 96.5 E 2C2.20 C1.113 2012-028A Chinasat... E 107.70 E 108.00 E 108.20 E 109.00 E 109.65 E 109... E 115.50 E 116.00 E 116.20 E 118.00 E 119.50 E 120... 121.0E 1986-096A USA 20,(FLTSATC. F7), i=14.2 99.5 E 2C2... 5 100.5 E C1.115 2006-038A Zhongxing-22A, FH1, i=3.4 101.5 E C2.40....22 2003-052A 2000-013A Zhongxing-20, i=1.0 Ekspress 2A, i=6.9 103.3 E 103.0 E C2....124 C1.123 2011-026A Zhongxing 10 2011-026A ZX-10....127 2007-031A 2013-020A Zhongxing 6B Chinasat 11, ZX 11... CHN CHN CHN CHN 122.20 E CHN 123.00 E INS 123... J RUS RUS J RUS RUS J J 128.20 E KOR 130.00 E RUS CHN... 124.0 E C1.137 2010-042A Zhongxing 6A, Chinasat 6A 125.0 E C1...-047A Zhongxing-1A = Chinasat 1A 129.8 E C1.142 2010-064A Zhongxing 20A... W USA 165.00 W USA 164.20 W USA INMARSAT-3 POR-2 INTELSAT6 178E... Terrestar 1, i= 4.0 111.0 W C2.59 110.20 W USA USABSS-6 2006-003A EchoStar... Dec 110.1 W C1.199 109.20 W CAN 107.30 W USA CAN... 14 102.80 W USA 101.20 W USA 101.00 W USA USA... 100.00 W USA USA 99.20 W USA 99.00 W USA USA... USA 86.50 W CAN 85.20 W USA MILSTAR 1 USGAE-1 USASAT-24E....50 W HOL HOL HOL HOL 20.20 W BEL 20.00 W USA USA USA....5E INTELSAT7 338.5E SATCOM-4/20.2W INTELSAT7 340E INTELSAT6 340E....0 W C1.277 2002-019A NSS-7 20.0 W 2012 Dec 2002-019A NSS-7 20.0 W C1.278 19.00 W USA ...



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... II F-4 ATS 3 OPS 9341 (IDSCS 20) OPS 9342 (IDSCS 21) OPS.... 275. 37. 35. 1. 19. 409. 20. 287. 208. 9. 11. 103. 102.... 288. 104. 27. 176. 1. 63. 20. 42. 7. 321. 43. 29. 460...-K fourth stage (Block DM) USA 20 (FLTSATCOM F7) GOES 7 Star 27 (GOES 7 AKM) Raduga 20 Proton-K fourth stage (Block DM... 1 Palapa B-2R Insat-ID Gorizont 20 Proton-K fourth stage (Block DM... C-3 DFS-Kopernikus 3 Galaxy VII Ekran 20 Proton-K fourth stage (Block DM... GOES 10 Zhongxing 6 (B) Thor II Telstar 5 Inmarsat 3-F4 Insat-IID 20 TABLE.... 62. 52. 63. 2. 57. 51. 20. 264. 44. 84. 55. 24... III F11) IABS Galaxy 10R Zhongxing-22 (FengHuo 1, FH-1) Hispasat 1C.... 100. 3. 31. 148. 100. 106. 8. 20. 168. 213. 46. 26. 228... 3 Insat 3E Galaxy 13/Horizons-1 Zhongxing-20 (ShenTong 1, ST-1) Yamal 200 N2.... 256. 54. 40. 217. 150. 20. 49. 130. 6. 46. 371. 253... 8 JCSAT 3A Syracuse 3B Mugunghwa 5 Zhongxing-22A (FengHuo 1, FH-1) DirecTV 9S... 1L Galaxy 17 Nigcomsat 1 Xinnuo 3 Zhongxing 6B DirecTV 10 Spaceway 3 BSAT.... 87. 49. 193. 91. 5. 162. 20. 194. 58. 3. 110. 178. 190... (Block DM-SLB) Galaxy 18 Zhongxing 9 Skynet 5C Turksat 3A Cosmos.... 69. 121. 214. 74. 257. 20. 157. 89. 244. 44. 4. 26... Nilesat 201 RASCOM-QAF 1R Zhongxing 6A Sirius XM-5 BSAT-3B... (NROL-32) Delta 4 second stage Zhongxing 20A Intelsat IS-17 Hylas... 0.0003000 0.0024 270.7100 52 20.3952 158 4.7906 07007B 28... 22254.987106 Astra 1H 19.20 42164.82659 0.0000881 0.0806 106....7138 51 314.8634 616 20.9586 99018A 28-DEC-10... 0.0005424 0.0440 246.9477 26 20.8133 397 23.5260 10021A... 22277.619120 Astra 2B 28.20 42164.06325 0.0004942 0.0364 340... 22278.631377 Beidou DW 4 84.20 42165.41110 0.0001896 1.4996 314... 30-DEC-10 22278.783935 Zhongxing 9 92.20 42164.92471 0.0004810 0.0208... 30-DEC-10 22278.897604 Zhongxing-20 (ShenTong 1, ST-1) 98.11 42166... 22278.906354 GE-1A 108.20 42165.03068 0.0001098 0.0284 277... 30-DEC-10 22278.779097 Zhongxing 6B 115.55 42165.80107... 30-DEC-10 22278.639109 Zhongxing 6A 125.15 42165.23280... 0.0002612 0.0307 221.7081 52 20.0275 545 224.7073 04003A... 0.0000182 0.0035 254.5005 52 20.2262 53 257.2379 01052A... 0.0002654 0.0070 260.5471 52 20.5723 686 266.8872 02062A... 0.0002686 0.0208 253.1428 47 20.8886 47 301.8913 00043A... 29-DEC-10 22277.657743 Zhongxing-22 (FengHuo 1, FH-1) 97.96... 30-DEC-10 22278.781146 Zhongxing-22A (FengHuo 1, FH-1) 103.27... 22277.078634 Telecom 2D 352.20 42165.05422 0.0004157 4.2515 69... 47320.05622 0.1655706 -2694.821 20.9818 13006.027 8.7471 51... D . 15 D . 16 D . 17 D . 18 D . 19 D . 20 D . 21 D . 22 D . 23 D . 24 D . 25...-DEC-10 22277.729630 Raduga 20 -15.52 43417.83987 1253....783 15.7502 1373.139 20.4271 51 16.7486 868... FengYun 2A (FengYun 2-1R) -15.20 1226.810 43391.18738 0.0095031... 7.8425 51 126.7829 996 20.1452 85107F 30-DEC-10....7588 830 110.9061 83088F 20-DEC-10 22268.604826 Proton... D . 74 D . 75 D . 76 57 86044F 20-DEC-10 22268.637986 Proton... Proton-K fourth stage (Block DM) -8.20 650.845 550.287 42815... 573.911 42738.04325 0.0153065 -20.586 10.6424 1168.408...-10 22277.080683 Anik A1 -5.20 42574.57243 410.079 0.0014351... 22277.661632 Intelsat VA F-15 -4.20 42495.73016 330.527 0.0021365... 390.446 73.1745 52 20.0546 591 161.9931 98002A...-10 22276.703715 Nahuel 1A -3.20 42416.07361 250.838 0.0002881...-10 22274.924306 Spacenet 3R -2.20 42334.91061 172.257 0.0000913...-10 22277.051574 Anik C1 -2.20 42336.53186 171.830 0.0016066...-10 22277.059109 Palapa B4 -1.20 42257.56041 93.682 0.0005768... 42251.12712 85.079 0.0012243 20.691 9.2165 149.466 56... 0.0025438 13.7029 150.084 20.7187 50 26.7487 904... Insat-IIA -0.25 42181.72821 20.284 0.0003145 2.274 11.3392...-K fourth stage (Block DM) -0.23 20.527 -27.915 42185.10945....9746 41 193.4271 135 20.3085 67001A 11-DEC-10....1034 50 337.2305 722 20.4628 05023H 29-DEC-10... 0.0060567 13.4616 115.781 20.1931 51 118.7767 914... 22274.823669 OPS 9341 (IDSCS 20) 27.29 -1999.511 40164... Raduga 12 747 42162.50723 20.0 0.0003887 65.0 14.5648 85... Raduga 10 748 42171.22343 20.9 0.0005069 64.6 14.6342 85... 22277.524977 Insat-IC 94.0 20.9911 51 342.7466 810...-DEC-10 22276.658275 Gorizont 20 775 42157.42393 44.0 0.0005564...-DEC-10 22276.697164 Ekran 20 785 42161.41494 50.2 12... 28-DEC-10 22276.846817 Zhongxing 6 (B) 984 42171.05068 21.0 6.4035....8002 50 315.8862 963 20.1814 84063A 30-DEC-10....1 0.0005760 13.6 13.6997 131.7 20.3177 47 121.2973 880... 86096A 20110101 12.7320 USA 20 (FLTSATCOM F7) 00:00:00... 100.909 308.3246 C2. 20 UI108 04004A 20110101 03.4172....5585 D1. 8 UI103 75055B 20110101 20.1425 Atlas SLV-3A stage... 011.355 086.2296 D1. 20 UI011 00065C 20110101 09.0289....5048 L1. 2 UI138 72101A 20110101 20.0718 OPS 9390 (CANYON 5) 00....2262 L1. 8 UI060 75055A 20110101 20.9154 OPS 4966 (CANYON 6) 00...-2 debris (VISSR cover) Debris UU. 20 81076 Star 27 (Himawari-2 AKM... 30-DEC-10 22278.690174 Zhongxing 20A 10065A 23-DEC-10...) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000... (deg) 100 80 60 40 20 0 22240 22245 22250 22255 22260...) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 22275 22280 22285 22290 22295... of Objects 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1965 1970 1975... drift orbit Status: January 2011 20 Number of Objects 15 10... deviation from the geostationary altitude (20 km bins) Figure 14: Distribution...



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...-eight”orbitismarkedby20smallblackdiscsand several... Pacific between 140W and 120W. −20 0 5 −10 01029A −5 10 15 λ (E) 2012 125−131.9156 20 25 11041A 05044A 07016A 00054A... 09008B 5 06007B 10037B δ 20 15 0 −15 30 −5 −20 11022A 0 30 35 40... 08030B 09065A δ 93048B 93076A 08011A 20 15 −10 −15 60 −10 −20 00036A −5 60 65 70 75 λ (E) ... 15 02043A 12011A 01019A δ 20 −15 90 −20 90 95 −5 100 105... 5 03013A 00052A 09032A δ 20 15 −10 −15 120 −20 120 125 0 130... 10 09044A 00011A δ 20 −5 −10 −15 150 −20 150 155 94055A −5 160... 96030A 5 10057A 09044B δ 20 −10 −15 180 20 91054B 15 10 δ 02055A 09008A 11056A 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −180 −175 −170 −165 λ (E) 2012...−131.9156 −160 −155 −150 −20 −150 −145 −140 −135 λ (E) 2012... 91018A 10 08038B δ 20 15 5 −5 −10 −15 −120 −20 −120 −115 93058B... 07009A 10 01018A 02006A δ 20 −10 −15 −90 −20 −90 −85 −80... 04048A 11049A 05022A 5 00038A 05008A δ 20 15 10 0 −5 −10 −15 −60 −20 −5 −60 −55 −50 −45 λ (E) 2012 ... 10006A 01031A 5 94047A δ 20 10 −10 −15 −30 −5 −20 −30 02029A 0 −25 −20 −15 λ (E) 2012 125−131... 01042A 08030A 12007A 02044A 5 10070A δ 20 10 −10 −15 0 Satellites with... 16A 16.20 E SICRAL-1 AMOS 5 19.20 E ASTRA 1M 19.20 E ASTRA 1H 19.20 E ASTRA 1L 19.20 E ASTRA 1 KR 19.20 E ASTRA 2C 20.00... 21.50 E EUTELSAT 21A 23.20 E THOR II 23.50 E ASTRA....15E 19.22E 19.22E 20.08E 21.18E 21.57E... 4B Arabsat 3C 28.20 E 28.20 E 28.20 E 28.50 E 28.50... E 33.00 E 33.00 E 34.20 E 34.5 E 34.00 E 35.00... E 46.00 E 47.00 E 47.20 E 48.00 E 49.00 E 50... Eurobird 3 USA 98 Was at 20.0E in 2011 Malfunction, inclined... E 90.75 E 91.50 E 92.20 E 91.50 E 93.50 E 93... E 108.00 E 108.00 E 108.20 E 109.00 E 109.85 E 109...-6 EXPRESS-AM33 ZHONGXING-22 ZHONGXING-20 THURAYA-3 ASIASAT 5 RADUGA-1 5 EXPRESS-A2 ZHONGXING-22A FENGYUN... 1C FENGYUN 2F KOREASAT 5 PALAPA D ZHONGXING-6B MUGUNGHWA 3 KOREASAT 6 TELKOM 2 THAICOM....05E 128.01E 127.94E Zhongxing 9 See Eutelsat W1 Librating 45E... XN-6, Sinosat 6 JCSAT 10 128.20 E 128.00 E 130.00 E 132... COMS 1 CHINASAT 1A (ZX 1A) ZHONGXING 20A VINASAT-1 JCSAT 5A APSTAR...-1 111.10 W ANIK F2 110.20 W TERRESTAR-1 110.00 W ECHOSTAR-11... 103.00 W DIRECTV 12 101.20 W SKYTERRA 1 101.00 W DIRECTV 9S....50 W 22.00 W 22.00 W 20.00 W 18.00 W 18.00...



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...-22 NSS-32 suspended NSS-20 2005-049B MSG 2 (Meteosat 9) 1994... LUX EUT EUT EUT EUT 20.00 E ARS ARB 21.00... E 15.00 E 16.00 E 16.20 E 16.50 E 17.00 E 19.00 E 19.20 E 23.00 E 23.30 E 23.50 E 24.00 E 24.20 E 25.00 E 25.50 E 26.00 E 28.20 E 28.50 E 28.75 E 29... 19.19E 19.22E 20.01E 20.00E 20.98E 21.18E Dec... VOLNA-19 USGON-1 USTRO-6 STATSIONAR-20 GALS-16 TOR-17M TONGASAT... E 91.50 E 92.00 E 92.20 E 93.00 E 93.50 E 95....44E Dec 2011 2008-028A Zhongxing 9 92.18E Dec 2011 2003... E 107.70 E 108.00 E 108.20 E 109.00 E 109.65 E 109....5)E 2003-052A Zhongxing-20 98.02E Dec 2011 2000-003A Zhongxing-22, i=3.27... Dec 2011 1986-096A USA 20,i=12.73 99.50E 2009... USA 148 (DSCS III B-08) Zhongxing-22A, FH1, i=1.83 Ekspress 2A... INS KOR INS KOR 113.20 E CHN 115.50 E CHN CHN....00 E CHN KOR KOR 116.20 E KOR 118.00 E INS INS... J RUS RUS J RUS RUS J 128.20 E KOR 130.00 E RUS CHN....99E 113.07E 2007-031A Zhongxing 6B 115.54E Dec 2011....87E Dec 2011 2010-064A Zhongxing 20A 130.09E Dec 2011... USA 113 (DSCS III F9), i=6.20 145.77E 147.97E 150... Dec 2011 1997-036A Superbird C, i=20.80 158.03E Dec 2011....10 W CAN CAN CAN 110.20 W USA 110.00 W USA ASC... KA-4 ANIK E-B USABSS-6 USABSS-5 109.20 W MEX MEX MEX MEX 107... USASAT-31L USASAT-35H 101.20 W USA 101.00 W USA USA....50 W HOL HOL HOL HOL 20.20 W BEL 20.00 W USA USA USA....5E INTELSAT7 338.5E SATCOM-4/20.2W INTELSAT7 340E INTELSAT6 340E... E 23.00 E 24.00 E 24.20 E 35.00 E 39.50 E 50... No sat No sat 113.20 E CHN CHNBSAT -113.5E --------No sat 116.20 E KOR COMS-116.2E --------No... No sat No sat 20.20 W BEL SATCOM-4 20.2W --No sat No...



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... 24, 1970 1975 1979 September 20, 1981 Launch of the first... satellite launched (AsiaSat-1) 1992 November 20, 1999 October 14, 1999 Start...: Praxis Publishing, 2010), p. 14. 7. n. 1, pp. 20-22. 8. G. Kulaki and J.G. Lewis, A Place... (100%) CZ-3B 56.33 m / 4.20 m 456 T 3 stage 1996 Communication Commercial... the US by one launch.20 These facts reflect on the...-matches-u-s-space-launches-for-firsttime/, 20. S. Clark, “China Lofts New Satellite.... “Kaituozhe 1 (KT-1) Launch Vehicle”, February 20, 2009, see http://www.sinodefence... telecommunication, 12 are navigation and 20 are scientific exploration satellites. Among these, 20 satellites are distributed in LEO... applications including meteorology, cartography, mining, 20 | china’s space capabilities agriculture, forestry...° CX-1(3) TSLC CZ-2D November 20, LEO 2011 98.5 ° TS-1 (SY... active in the orbit. The Zhongxing (China Star/ZX) series is... three AP Star satellites, eleven Zhongxing and two Tianlian satellites in... Space (France) respectively. Meanwhile, the Zhongxing satellites buses are mainly from... and Oceania. Among the Zhongxing satellites, the Zhongxing 6B has the maximum... Asian continent and Oceania, and Zhongxing-9 has the least coverage area... remaining AP Star satellites and Zhongxing satellites have regional coverage over... Telecommunication Satellites AP Star-2R Zhongxing-6B Zhongxing-9 Source: China Satellite Communications...) There have been speculations about Zhongxing-20, 20A, 22A and 1A satellites... Shentong (Zhongxing-20), Fenghuo 1 (Zhongxing 22), Fenghuo 1-02 (Zhongxing 22A) and Fenghuo 2 (Zhongxing 1A).11.... which operates all the other Zhongxing satellites.12 Since all three..., 1998 GEO 87.5°E 18 C and 20 Ku-band transponders Regional coverage...-band transponders Regional coverage ZX-20 XSLC CZ-3A November 15... November 25, 2010 GEO 130°E 20 transponders ZX-10 XSLC CZ-3B June 20, 2011 110.5°E 30 C and 16... September 17, 2011 GEO 129.7° E 20 transponders APStar2R XSLC CZ-3B....5° SY-4 JSLC CZ-2D November 20, 2011 LEO 98.5 ° The Future... for this purpose in 1968.20 Just as the satellite programme... of the Shenzhou-1 on November 20. The flight lasted for 21... was launched successfully on December 20, 2011.81 The contract with... Instrument Japan CZ-2D October 20, 1996 17 MabuhaySat Mabuhay Satellite... The Philippines CZ-3B August 20, 1997 18 APStar-2R APT...-2C/ December 08, 1997 SD 20 Iridium Motorola USA CZ-2C... Motorola USA CZ-2C/ August 20, 1998 SD china’s space missions... NASRDA Nigeria CZ-3B December 20, 2011 * Launch failures ** Satellite failure..., pp. 77- 78; “Shentong (ChinaSat 20)”, see http://www.sinodefence.com..., accessed on December 25, 2011. 20. Fultron Corporation, “China and the... on December 26, 2011. 29. n. 6, p. 20. 30. China Manned Space Engineering... Gets Timetable”, People’s Daily, September 20, 2010, see http://english. peopledaily... Gets Timetable”, People’s Daily, September 20, 2010, see http://english. peopledaily... research”, Xinhua News Agency, January 20, 2012, see http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/sci/2012-01/20/c_131370239_2.htm, accessed on January... as threatening behaviour. 6 On February 20, 2008, the US itself tested... set by earlier space powers.20 China has therefore been exploiting... News Report, January 29, 2007. 20. n. 133, pp. 30-40. 21... Research”, Xinhua News Agency, January 20, 2012, see http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/sci/2012-01/20/c_131370239_2.htm, accessed on April...



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... II F-4 ATS 3 OPS 9341 (IDSCS 20) OPS 9342 (IDSCS 21) OPS.... 15. 451. 258. 37. 34. 3. 20. 390. 19. 269. 197. 11.... 95. 436. 123. 297. 291. 20. 59. 35. 4. 346. 326. 22...-K fourth stage (Block DM) USA 20 (FLTSATCOM F7) GOES 7 Star 27 (GOES 7 AKM) Raduga 20 Proton-K fourth stage (Block DM... 1 Palapa B-2R Insat-ID Gorizont 20 Proton-K fourth stage (Block DM... C-3 DFS-Kopernikus 3 Galaxy VII Ekran 20 Proton-K fourth stage (Block DM.... 429. 226. 66. 217. 62. 20. 33. 51. 142. 33. 163... 3 1. D BSAT-1a 1. C1 GOES 10 1. D Zhongxing 6 (B) 1. L1 Thor II 1. C2 Telstar... VIII F-2 1. C1 Superbird C 1. C2 PAS 6 2. U 20 No 17. 25. 307. 56.... 241. 87. 178. 20. 50. 70. 32. 313. 20. 146. 184. 71... III F11) IABS Galaxy 10R Zhongxing-22 (FengHuo 1, FH-1) Hispasat 1C... 15. 67. 86. 99. 79. 20. 195. 16. 101. 114. 302.... 214. 242. 183. 12. 34. 4. 20. 263. 33. 233. 41. 142... 3 Insat 3E Galaxy 13/Horizons-1 Zhongxing-20 (ShenTong 1, ST-1) Yamal 200 N2... 8 JCSAT 3A Syracuse 3B Mugunghwa 5 Zhongxing-22A (FengHuo 1, FH-1) DirecTV 9S... 1L Galaxy 17 Nigcomsat 1 Xinnuo 3 Zhongxing 6B DirecTV 10 Spaceway 3 BSAT... (Block DM-SLB) Galaxy 18 Zhongxing 9 Skynet 5C Turksat 3A Cosmos... C1 . 18 C1 . 19 C1 . 20 C1 . 21 C1 . 22 C1... 21900.014838 Astra 1H 19.20 42164.82182 0.0000840 0.0638 132.0095 20 74.7472 401 19.2271... 21872.427882 Astra 1KR 19.20 42164.90957 0.0011559 0.0508 206... 4.1691 53 280.6132 564 20.9767 99018A 31-DEC-09... 21900.366215 Astra 2D 28.20 42164.54850 0.0008576 0.0561 218... 21880.798796 Astra 2B 28.20 42164.36123 0.0003510 0.0364 280... 31-DEC-09 21914.736470 Zhongxing 9 92.20 42164.75174 0.0004971 0.0158... 31-DEC-09 21914.876493 Zhongxing-20 (ShenTong 1, ST-1) 98.11 42164... 20 264.3734 20 100.5328 06038A 30-DEC-09 21913.728669 Zhongxing... 21914.584502 GE-1A 108.20 42165.49296 0.0002943 0.0364 254... 31-DEC-09 21914.582488 Zhongxing 6B 115.55 42165.75341... 0.0001339 0.0657 66.9210 20 185.8151 20 127.9289 08018A 29... C2 . 18 C2 . 19 C2 . 20 C2 . 21 C2 . 22 C2... 31-DEC-09 21914.694363 Zhongxing-22 (FengHuo 1, FH-1) 97.97....459213 Feng Yun 2E 104.20 42164.16613 0.0001002 1.7997 286... D . 15 D . 16 D . 17 D . 18 D . 19 D . 20 D . 21 D . 22 D . 23 D . 24 D . 25...-DEC-09 21914.056157 Raduga 20 -15.52 43418.09566 1253....9260 891 93.8909 97029A 20-DEC-09 21903.465220 FengYun 2A (FengYun 2-1R) -15.20 1226.778 810.002 43390....9815 904 174.9006 85028C 20-DEC-09 21903.875868 Leasat....6682 927 234.4818 86082F 20-DEC-09 21903.583565 Proton... 0.0028042 14.1812 882.279 20.4519 52 4.6209 779 81... 786.982 19.2460 52 20.3425 872 146.6686 96005D... Proton-K fourth stage (Block DM) -8.20 650.827 550.734 42815...-09 21914.848056 Anik A1 -5.20 42574.18098 410.071 0.0013500....4918 716 306.7165 84005A 20-DEC-09 21903.637720 Yuri....041 13.7949 395.077 20.2962 50 79.4552 834... 21907.368530 Intelsat VA F-15 -4.20 330.515 42494.12508 0.0020730... 389.902 77.2315 52 20.1780 539 183.7903 98002A....1278 790 182.7208 06053C 20-DEC-09 21903.610752 FengYun...-09 21914.727060 Spacenet 3R -2.20 42337.86522 172.252 0.0002356...-09 21909.835972 Anik C1 -2.20 42335.15952 171.843 0.0014689... 42272.69324 107.454 0.0018711 20.669 10.0119 194.239...-09 21913.865938 Palapa B4 -1.20 42256.73959 93.735 0.0006709... Insat-IIA -0.25 42200.05528 20.290 0.0004444 1.341 10.5738...-K fourth stage (Block DM) -0.23 20.046 -28.292 42181.57303....74551 -104.814 13.3637 -20.021 48.0703 51 345... 0.0012463 12.8125 -790.418 20.8300 52 88.1133 869... 21914.159248 OPS 9341 (IDSCS 20) 27.29 -1999.507 40164... L1 . 18 L1 . 19 L1 . 20 L1 . 21 L1 . 22 L1... Raduga 12 747 42165.62361 20.0 0.0004477 65.0 14.3656 85... Raduga 10 748 42157.78121 20.8 0.0002976 64.6 14.5731 85...-DEC-09 21914.565127 Gorizont 20 775 42174.54534 44.0 0.0003887...-DEC-09 21914.572373 Ekran 20 785 42171.66345 50.2 11....6 0.0000451 46.4 13.4744 103.0 20.0041 51 241.8611 797... 31-DEC-09 21914.581968 Zhongxing 6 (B) 983 104.4 42178.15014 0.0006841....0918 136.0 47.7034 51 20.0098 579 16.5959 90102A... L2 . 18 L2 . 19 L2 . 20 L2 . 21 L2 . 22 L2... (deg) 60 50 40 30 20 10 21580 21600 21620 21640... 86096A 20100101 12.1132 USA 20 (FLTSATCOM F7) 00:00:00... 103.342 338.2960 C3. 20 UI128 95022A 20100101 08.7307....4807 D1. 7 UI103 75055B 20100101 20.3840 Atlas SLV-3A stage... 253.308 010.7564 D1. 20 UI015 00001C 20100101 08.7081....4173 L1. 8 UI138 72101A 20100101 20.3308 OPS 9390 (CANYON 5) 00...-2 debris (VISSR cover) Debris UU. 20 81076 Star 27 (Himawari-2 AKM... 70 60 50 40 30 20 16000 17000 18000 19000 MJD... (deg) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 21650 21700 21750 21800... 45 40 35 30 25 20 21886 21888 21890 21892 21894... of Objects 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1965 1970 1975... 2010 25 Number of Objects 20 15 10 5 0 -3000 -2500 -2000... deviation from the geostationary altitude (20 km bins) Figure 13: Distribution...



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... the Geostationary Ring, Issues 1 to 20, also at ESOC, Darmstadt. 8 Established...-78 Page 1 16.20 E 17.00 E 19.00 E 19.20 E 20.00 E 21... E 27.00 E 28.00 E 28.20 E I SICRAL-2A BLR IK INTERSPUTNIK...-1 (BSS) 52, 57 16.20 E C2 19.20 E 19.20 E 19.19 E 19... C1 28.1 E 28.19 E 28.20 E 28.21 E 28.22 E 28....01 E 1987-078A Optus A3, i=9.20, Inactive 31.52 E 1997-071A... TOR-14M GALS-16 STATSIONAR-20 VOLNA-19 USGON-1 TONGASAT-H70... 2000-003A Zhongxing-22 97.99 E C1 2006-038A Zhongxing-22A 98..., CIS 2008-028A Zhongxing-9 92.20 E Enc 1986-096A USA 20 = Fltsatcom F7...) LSTAR 4B (BSS) 43, 48 20, 35 43, 47 54, 57...,i=7.4 100.04 E C2 Both, USA 20 and Leasat 5, military 2006-048A... Asia Pacific region 2003-052A Zhongxing-20 103.01 E C1 Internal services...-059A GE-1A, AAP-1 108.20 E Servicers in China, SE Asia... Indonesa and ASEAN 2007-031A Zhongxing 6B 115.56 E TV for... VOLNA-6 25-27 MTSAT-140E 20-79 ● 2005-006A Himawari-6 = MTSat...-31T ANIK E-B ANIK-F2 110.20 W USA USABSS-6 (BSS) 110,00 W USA USABSS-5 (BSS) 109.20 W MEX MEX MEX SOLIDARIDAD 1M... ? USASAT-24F USASAT-31L 101.20 W USA USABSS-1 (BSS) 101.00....50 W HOL HOL HOL HOL 20.00 W USA USA USA 19... 1996-026A USA 118 = Mercury 2 20.7 W C EUTELSAT EXB-18W 52, 55...



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... from Beijing to Selected Cities.. . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.12. International and Domestic RPK... new jetliners over the next 20 years. Actual purchases could be..., previous work experience, and nearly 20 years of combined experience at... world demand during the next 20 years. The markets for cargo... comparison, China’s RPK is about 20 percent that of U.S. airlines, more... Chinese commercial fleet is approximately 20 percent the size of the... MG1100-2.5 not in the top 20 for international RPK. In total... freighters worldwide over the next 20 years (Boeing, 2010, p. 10), but... freighters built over the next 20 years are sold in Asia... at 5.3 percent over the next 20 years. This implies 3.3 percent growth... new airplanes over the next 20 years, with more than one... new aircraft, over the next 20 years for their domestic market... regional aircraft over the next 20 years (Francis, 2010c). 4 Boeing predicts... 5 4 70 4 60 3 50 3 40 2 30 2 20 1 10 1 0 Brazil China Japan Germany... 10 percent) over the next 20 years to bound our projections... require replacement in the next 20 years. Boeing’s projection is equivalent... GDP growth for the next 20 years, or following a U.S.-like RPK..., 10 percent growth rates for 20 years and the current RPK.../ GDP ratio would cut the 20-year projection to about 2,000... take only 5 to 6 hours, roughly 20 Ready for Takeoff: China’s Advancing... Domestic 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Brazil China Japan SOURCE... purchase nine. Over the next 20 years, COMAC hopes to build... C919s. Hainan Airlines ordered another 20, General Electric Commercial Aviation Services... (Perrett, 2010b, p. 49; Perrett, 2010c, p. 20). 28 Ready for Takeoff: China... 2010 had delivered a total of 20 A320s and five A319s. The... payload. Under the initial contract, 20 helicopters will be assembled. This... flight in 1989. Only about 20 of these aircraft have been... for another 150 A320s and 20 A350s in 2006. In 2007... market once every 15 to 20 years” (Layne, 2010). • Undetermined interest... and propulsion engineers from almost 20 Chinese operators received training in... (“Chengdu Aerotech Manufacturing Co., Ltd.”). • 20-percent interest in Xi’an... (“Industrial Cooperation and Technology Transfers”). • 20-percent interest in Hafei Airbus... with the capacity to produce 20 aircraft per year was opened... Singapore UAE 25 Brazil Canada 20 China Germany 15 Japan United... China 40 Germany 30 Japan 20 United Kingdom France 10 0 2005... known spacecraft launches between October 20, 1996, and June 15, 2010... satellites. Fenghuo, officially known as Zhongxing 22 or ChinaSat 22, was... January 2000. A replacement, Fenghuo 1A (Zhongxing 22A/ChinaSat 22A), was launched... and data communications (“Feng Huo [Zhongxing 2X/ShenTong Series],” 2010; “UCS...”). Shentong, officially known as Zhongxing 20 or ChinaSat 20, is described as a “strategic... data-processing capability (“Feng Huo [Zhongxing 2X/ShenTong Series],” 2010). China...”; “Venesat (Simon Bolivar),” 2010; “Chinasat/ Zhongxing/STTW Series,” 2010; de Selding... a 113-km-wide swath with 20-m spatial resolution in five spectral... Earth Resources Satellite”). Images with 20-m resolution, such as those provided... equipped with a CCD camera of 20-m resolution. Huanjing 1A also carries... at night with a resolution of 20 m. As noted above, 3 See “Zi...’s Space Capabilities 99 images of 20-m resolution have limited military utility....reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5931LT20091004 “Chinasat/Zhongxing/STTW Series,” Jane’s Space Systems... Aviation (巴航工业:绿色飞行),” Business Watch Magazine, August 20, 2010. “Embraer in China,” Embraer..., June 17, 2010. “Feng Huo (Zhongxing 2X/ShenTong Series),” Jane’s Space... for China,” Seattle Times, June 20, 2005. Herrnstadt, Owen, “Offsets and..., U.S. Aerospace Industry Statistics, visited October 20, 2010. As of January 29... Sharp Images,” Defense News, October 20, 2008. As of January 29... Ownership Structure,” Flight International, July 20, 2010. As of January 29....flightglobal.com/articles/2010/07/20/344475/eadss-complexownership-structure.html... Space Technology, November 22, 2010c, p. 20. ———, “Longer Marches,” Aviation Week and... and Security Review Commission, May 20, 2010. As of January 29... Week Intelligence Network website, July 20, 2010. “World Bank Data Book...



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... 26 24 22 23 21 20 19 18 17 16 15... 2-2 Apstar I Optus B-3 Zhongxing 6A Asiasat 2 Echostar I Apstar lA Zhongxing 7 FSW 2-3 Zhongxing 6B Feng... 4 Jul 1996 18 Aug 1996 20 Oct 1996 11 May 1997 10 Jun 1997 20 Aug 1997 I Sep 1997 8 Feb... 200-17,230 171-342 20!1--36,118 210-36,054 174-343 596-1,763 20!1--300 214-312 CZ-3B... 5 CBERS2 Chuangxin 1-01 FSW 3-1 Shentong I Zhongxing 20 Tan Ce I Tansuo I Naxing Tan... Jun 1999 10 May 1999 20 Dec 1998 330 3,800 25...