Предприятие. Effective Space. [Редактировать]

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12018-01-18. Effective Space подписала первый контракт на орбитальное обслуживание.
Великобританская* Effective Space, которая разрабатывает космическую систему продления сроков активного существования космических аппаратов, объявила о том, что она подписала контракт на производство и запуск двух своих первых сервисных спутников. Новые аппараты получат общее наименование Space Drone и технически они будут из себя представлять полностью электрическую спутниковую платформу, которая после стыковки со спутником сможет заменить ему двигательную установку и другие служебные системы. Технически обслуживание не будет состоять в ремонте космических аппаратов, а лишь в расширении срока их активного существования за счет возможностей пристыкованной платформы (масса около 400 кг). Согласно сообщению компании, объем контракта составляет более 100 млн. долл. Однако, британский производитель не стал раскрывать название заказчика сославшись на то, что эта конфиденциальная информация.
* Компания Effective Space была организована генеральным менеджером Israel Aerospace Industries в 2013 году и имеет свой научно-производственный центр в Тель-Авиве, однако, в силу того обстоятельства, что большинство операторов геостационарной спутниковой связи размещено в Европе, она предпочитает иметь штаб-квартиру на территории Великобритании. Тэги: Effective SpaceIsrael Aerospace IndustriesСерия Space Drone

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... human and robotic space exploration. HEO operates the International Space Station (ISS... known as the Space Launch System (SLS), launch operations, space communications, rocket... exploration of deep space. Space Operations Space Shuttle/International Space Station The Space Shuttle flew... 11, NASA’s Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program space components of the networks that provide space communications for NASA’s Space Network (DSN)—continued to meet the space... Earth-orbiting missions. The Space Network consists of a space segment, composed of... become part of the space segment of the Space Network. The SIR... national biomedical research community: the Space Radiobiology Space Biomedical Research Institute’s NRA... help us to develop more effective countermeasures and radiation shielding. In... the MPCV, thus maximizing the effective use of taxpayer dollars. The... as capabilities for new, cost-effective space markets are created. NASA and... of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities, F i s c a l NASA Awards Second... develop safe, reliable, and cost-effective human space transporta- A e r o n a u t i c s a n d R e p o r t the year, these... use of space observatories and space probes that view Earth from space, observe... carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 100 inches. Flying... A e r o n a u t i c s a n d R e p o r t Telescope’s deployment into space, astronomers at the Space Telescope Science S p a c e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t 32 pair... orbit. James Webb Space Telescope Program The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST...-FAA study that demonstrated an effective process called Flow-Based Trajectory... perform a safe landing. Space Activities The first Defense Space Council (DSC) was... Defense space and Defense elements of National Security Space (NSS) to streamline space... space priorities and strategic guidance for Defense space systems and for Defense space... Air Force, 50th Space Wing, Headquarters Air Force Space Command, as well... Control and Space Situation Awareness awareness of deep space objects of interest... of data on space objects in transit to deep space orbits and... routinely maintain the entire deep space catalog. Space Situation Awareness (SSA) partnership... operational F i s c a l DOD launched the Space‑Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) satellite to enhance... for responsive space missions. The Army opened a new Wideband Space Operations Center... traffic controllers will become more effective guardians of safety through automation... four main areas: space traffic management and operations; space transportation operations, technologies... president and general manager, Space Exploration, Boeing Defense, Space F i s c a l ined the state... solar photovoltaic cells for space applications, to “space-qualify” their solar cells... bodies by exposure to the space environment. Space weathering (which includes solar...’s land- and space-based missions, including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra... charge mitigations in space vehicles in the charged space environment. In addition... Star One B1 space station using the C-band 2 0 1 1 mitted space station list... basic research in space physics. Major the National Space Weather Program (NSWP... education and outreach activities. An effective knowledge transfer program also ensured... 2 0 1 1 A c t i v i t i e s . 147 F i s c a l space policies and programs internationally. State supports U.S. civil space activities through... space, including such issues as orbital space debris, meteorology, astronomy and astrophysics, space transportation, nuclear power sources in space... safety and security, and achieve effective sustainability, as called for by... European Space Agency (ESA) on space weather as part of ESA’s space situational... surface, atmospheric, or space nuclear detonations (NuDets). The Space-Based Nuclear Detonation... human spaceflight in the Space Shuttle/International Space Station era. 2 0 1 1 ship between...-133/Discovery 2011-008A Space Shuttle International Space Station 234 km 157...-135/Atlantis 2011-031A Space Shuttle International Space Station 232 km 157... Atlantis and last Space Shuttle flight Appendix D-1A spaCe aCTiviTies of The... digital raster graphics Defense Space Council Deep Space Network FAA FANS FAS... Fighter James Webb Space Telescope kelvin kilopounds-force Kennedy Space Center L Landscape... National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Air and Space Museum National Agricultural... Observatory National Space Organization (Taiwan) NASA Space Radiation Laboratory National Security Space National Science and Technology Council National Space... recommended practices Space Based Infrared System Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Space-Based Space Surveillance Office of Science (DOE) Space Communications and... Material System Requirements Review Space Situation Awareness Space Surveillance Telescope Center for...



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SCaN-ADD-V1 SPACE COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION PROGRAM Space Communications and Navigation... 4 Effective Date: April 7, 2014 Expiration Date: April 7, 2019 National Aeronautics and Space... Document (ADD) Volume 1: Executive Summary Effective Date: April 7, 2014 Approved by... Associate Administrator, SCaN Program Manager Space Communications and Navigation Program Office... Authority: Anthony J. Russo Chief Engineer Space Communications and Navigation Program Office... 4 Change Information Page List of Effective Pages Page Number Issue Title... History Document Number Status/Issue Effective Date CR Number SCaN-ADD... 7, 2014 CR000094 Change History Revision Effective Date Description of Change Baseline... Domain Capability............................................. 2-11 2.6.2 Enhanced Deep Space Domain Capability .......................................... 2-13 2.6.3 Destination Relay... Capabilities .............................................. 2-12 Figure 2-7. Enhanced Deep Space Domain Capabilities ........................................... 2-14 Figure 2-8. Destination... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN... an integrated service architecture and space internetworking. This document provides an... (NEN), the Space Network (SN), and the Deep Space Network (DSN). The... “services in a manner consistent with a space architecture framework and mission requirements... other Government agencies, including international space agencies.” The PCA assigns the... configuration and evolution of NASA’s space communications and navigation infrastructure b) Defines....1, Management and Utilization of NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Infrastructure. The...) are: a) SCaN shall develop a unified space communications and navigation network infrastructure... communication and navigation infrastructure across space c) SCaN’s infrastructure shall evolve to... assure data communication protocols for space exploration missions are internationally interoperable... SCaN Network. New technologies like space internetworking and optical communications will....1: Management and Utilization of NASA's Space Communication and Navigation Infrastructure. Central... a complex space and ground infrastructure that supports the Agency’s own space missions... stations and integration systems providing space communications and tracking services to... burdensome, inefficient, and not cost effective for new exploration and science... provides space networking (Internet Protocol (IP) and DTN protocols in space), which... provides comprehensive, robust, and cost effective space communications services at order-of... bodies to evaluate and adopt effective, interoperable standards as well as... and control Network asset monitoring Space Internetworking management c) SCaN Service Catalog... high data rate downlinks and space internetworking. 2.6.1.2 Infrastructure Enhancements Planned Infrastructure... (BPGT) g) Launch Communications Stations (LCS) h) Space-Based Relay i) Destination Relay j) Integrated...-V1 Revision 4 Figure 2-7. Enhanced Deep Space Domain Capabilities 2.6.2.1 Mission/Program Drivers... Revision 4 e) Space internetworking nodes with DTN 2.6.2.3 Performance The deep space communication capability... higher availability c) Destination Relay satellites d) Space internetworking nodes with IP and... relay satellites with storeand-forward, space internetworking, and system capabilities evolved... space internetworking b) Dedicated communication/relay orbiters: scaled for higher availability 1. Extended space internetworking services c) Space internetworking nodes d) Integrated Network... Interagency Operations Advisory Group (IOAG) space internetworking cross support recommendations to... needed include inertial stabilization and space-based photon counting receiver technologies... to further support network integration, space internetworking, and human exploration missions... architecture, enabling more efficient and effective user mission support. These services... management, integrated service execution, and space internetworking TDRS-1b: Exercise TDRS... of space- and ground-based optical terminals for the deep space domain - determine the optimum mix of space relay and... for the deep space optical capability DS-2: Deep Space 70-m Subnet Retirement... enabling communications services to future space missions. The integrated network architecture... Office DSE Deep Space Element DSN Deep Space Network DTE Direct To... Interface Requirement Document ISS International Space Station JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory... Earth Orbit MESSENGER MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging MetOp... Radar SBR Space-Based Relay SCaN Space Communications and Navigation SCMM Space Communication... Directorate SN Space Network SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SOMD Space Operations Mission Directorate SRD System Requirements Document SRS Space Research Service STEREO Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory STS Space Transportation...



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... DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SPACE ON A TERRESTRIAL SYSTEM: A COST EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR PLANETARY... IN “SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS” EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF SAPIENZA SPACE SYSTEMS AND SPACE SURVEILLANCE LABORATORY – S5LAB SPACE ENGINEERING AND... ROCKET PROGRAM AT ANDØYA SPACE CENTER SESSION 5: E - Atmospheric & Planetary Experiments...: BUILDING FUTURE SPACE CAPABILITY IN CANADA PROVIDING HANDS-ON SPACE EDUCATION BY... COLLABORATING SELF-RELIANT STUDENT TEAMS SPACE GENERATION ADVISORY COUNCIL PROJECT GROUPS... IP2SAT AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION FOR DEEP-SPACE CUBESATS 7 Olga Mamoutova ON DESIGN... FOR HUNTING LOW EARTH ORBIT'S SPACE DEBRIS SESSION 9: H - Students Research (Friday... DEPLOYER WITH RETRIEVABLE CAPABILITY FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS LARGE DEPOT TO SERVICE... PLANETARY RESEARCH AS A TOOL FOR EFFECTIVE SPACE EDUCATION 2 Sergio Erculiani 3 Zoe Lola... AND CHALLENGES OF STUDENT DRIVEN SPACE PROJECTS: A SURVEY ON HANDS-ON... FACING REAL SPACE PROBLEMS A NICHE PROFESSIONAL NETWORK FOR THE SPACE INDUSTRY Mauro...



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... of space operations is to provide highly reliable and cost-effective space operations... In Human Space Flight, we are committed to ensuring effective, efficient and... efficient and effective operations. STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS The Space Station operations... of the Space Shuttle to ensure its viability as a safe, effective transportation... of the Space Shuttle to ensure its viability as a safe, effective transportation... Space Shuttle Operations is to provide safe, reliable and effective access to space... for safe, reliable and effective access to space. STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVING GOALS... provide safe, reliable and effective access to space. This budget is based... for safe, reliable and effective access to space and to conduct onorbit... launch services at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Effective in FY 1999, all... provide reliable, quality and cost-effective space operations services that enable Enterprise... and cost-effective manner. In line with the National Space Policy, the... to increase information handling and effective science return, automate system responsiveness... capabilities; (3) develop and nurture an effective science-technology partnership; (4) stimulate cooperation... the Office of Aerospace Technology, effective October 1, 2000. Cross-Enterprise Technology... a cost-effective way to test flight instrumentation in the space radiation environment... commercial space research. CSCs furnish an infrastructure that provides a cost-effective and efficient way for companies to conduct research in space. The... aeronautics and space programs and enables GRC to be a cost-effective resource... high quality, reliable, and cost effective space operations services which enable Enterprise..., reliable, cost-effective customer access to the multi-mission space telecommunications network... experiences for educators in the effective application of educational technologies; and... Space Communications goal is to provide high quality, reliable and cost-effective space... and cost-effective manner. In line with the National Space Policy, the... The Space Network program goal is to provide reliable, cost-effective space-based... provide high-quality, reliable, cost-effective telecommunications systems and services for... associated with the space flight environment and develop effective countermeasures to assure... - MSFC’s Space Shuttle projects manage safe, continuous, robust, and cost-effective operations for the Space Shuttle propulsion elements: External... aeronautics and space programs. This enables GRC to be a cost-effective resource... assessing health risks and developing effective countermeasures against galactic cosmic radiation... area: • Formulate and implement cost-effective space demonstrations of selected technologies on... a "fully effective" (green) overall science achievement rating from the Space Science external... Deep Space Technology, CISM, X2000, Sounding Rockets, and Balloons. Achieve a "fully effective" (green) overall science achievement rating from the Space Science external... a "fully effective" (green) overall science achievement rating from the Space Science external... a "fully effective" (green) overall science achievement rating from the Space Science external... a "fully effective" (green) overall science achievement rating from the Space Science external... a "fully effective" (green) overall science achievement rating from the Space Science external... a "fully effective' (green) overall science achievement rating from the Space Science external... area: • Formulate and implement cost-effective space demonstrations of selected technologies on... in precision agriculture • Enable an effective mix of private, government, & international...-leverage technologies to enable safe, effective and affordable human/robotic exploration... is an effective mechanism for delivering tangible benefits from space broadly to...-leverage technologies to enable safe, effective and affordable human/robotic exploration...-leverage technologies to enable safe, effective and affordable human/robotic exploration...: Ensuring the most effective and efficient access to space for primary payload...-leverage technologies to enable safe, effective and affordable human/robotic exploration...-leverage technologies to enable safe, effective and affordable human/robotic exploration... and effective technologies and methods for protecting human health in space. Goal... long-duration space flight. • Apply and refine countermeasures for safe, effective, and affordable longduration human space flight. • Achieve a deep..., physics, materials) to support safe, effective, and affordable human/robotic exploration... Office of Procurement, "is a simple, effective, and userfriendly system for disseminating... areas: safety and security, cost-effective common infrastructure and services, innovative... well as intellectually through clear, effective communications concerning the Agency’s activities... targeted industry sectors. • Carry out effective NASA technology transfer market outreach...



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... of its effective dielectric constant is modeled with an effective medium approximation.... This PFC converter completes the effective elimination of line harmonic current... mode at 1.55 𝑚𝑢m with a 517 𝑚𝑢m 2 effective area and 0.4 dB/m propagation losses... other standards, to implement an effective grounding and bonding plan. Various... optical amplifiers. Using the Foreman effective mass Hamiltonian, the electronic structure... for pervasive implementation if cost-effective integration process technology and performance... surface emitting lasers. By designing effective refractive index changes in the... could provide users with more effective content-browsing capabilities. [606] MPEG...-effective scaled silicon-germanium (SiGe) process technologies. However, the lack of effective... antenna measurement setups. A simple and effective method to avoid the truncation... agreement with expected results. [923] Effective beamformer for coherent signal reception... space-time (BLAST) receiver is addressed. For the performance evaluation, the effective... bulk N-channel MOSFETs. A simple and effective method to eliminate edge transistor... of operational time variability using effective process times. Operational time variability... and attention expression functions were effective methods in the development of... collaboration and dialogue provide an effective framework for achieving this. [1053... resolution and pulse shapes (100 𝑚𝑢s effective time constant). The measured energy... a solution, it contains a significantly higher effective dye concentration and, therefore, is... indicates that EFTEM provides an effective means to characterize the electronic... coefficient measurements. Density of states, effective-mass values, which are calculated... transistors. Technologically simple and cost-effective processes are essential for the.../GaAsSb SLs)/GaAs heterostructures are effective to reduce the strain accumulation... layers, which will also form effective separated confinement heterostructure. The temperature... algorithm, which produces stable and effective segmentation results in order to.... This article describes a simple and effective technique for adding inductive characteristics... lasers have been demonstrated as effective tools for the nondestructive examination... PTCDA interlayer thickness d PTCDA. The effective barrier height varies between 0.81... techniques are not used. However, effective refractive index match between microwave... mode propagation characteristics. The mode effective index variation of TE-polarized... particular, a different dependence of the effective bandgap with temperature when compared... electron energies and increases the effective masses. A very small N incorporation is... the other cavity changes the effective threshold current measured. The longitudinal... disadvantages of ADC, a simple but effective deadzone comparator is proposed. [1811... ADC achieves 4.1 effective bits at low input frequencies and 2.8 effective bits at... (MQW) structures that provide a more effective capture of injected carriers into.... The results were discussed for effective hardening design associated with SEEs... demonstrate that macromodeling is very effective for system-level SET investigations...-density memories. For space applications, can cost-effective and reliable heavy ion... effects characterization of microelectronics. The effective linear energy transfer of heavy...] Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of. === [2154] Gain characteristics... degradation of threshold voltage and effective mobility with increasing dose. We... megasamples/s, the prototype system exhibits ∼3.5 effective number of bits (ENOB) of... experimentally verified. The single-band effective-mass Schroedinger equation is solved... incorporates the effect of energydependent effective mass of electrons in nonparabolic... transistor logic circuits. A general and effective complementary pass transistor logic design... lasers, threshold current density, and effective differential gain. The simulations show... bandwidth estimation technique. A simple and effective technique for estimating a network path... NN backstepping controller is highly effective in controlling the industrial motor... tolerant control strategy with a cost-effective fault detection scheme and a multiple... tests with the prototype show effective current harmonic compensating performance of... particular interest. A simple and cost-effective method of fabricating a mode-size... an effective space-time geometry. Depending on the conformal factor of the effective... images will seriously affect their effective utilisation. A new wavelet-based algorithm... drive for commercial applications. For effective utilization of the developed system... реферат 26. Fevrier S. Very large effective area singlemode photonic bandgap fibre... - 946 реферат 924. Linrang Zhang. Effective beamformer for coherent signal reception... of operational time variability using effective process times. / Jacobs J.H., Etman L.F.P., van... M.D. Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of. / Nielsen M.D., Folkenberg J.R., Mortensen...



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... Governance and Strategic Management Governance Effective Agency governance is critical to... to ensure appropriate synergy and effective resource utilization. The Administrator leads... International Space Station (ISS) to enable future space exploration, facilitate a commercial space economy... NASA’s Mission. Objective 3.3: Provide secure, effective, and affordable information technologies and... enable NASA’s Mission. Objective 3.4: Ensure effective management of NASA programs and... International Space Station (ISS) to enable future space exploration, facilitate a commercial space economy...’s Mission.  Strategic Objective 3.3: Provide secure, effective, and affordable information technologies and... NASA’s Mission.  Strategic Objective 3.4: Ensure effective management of NASA programs and... 2017 reporting period. To ensure effective leadership and accountability across the... provide timely, reliable, and cost-effective enterprise security to protect its..., and transparent mission support through effective IT planning, enterprise architecture, and... duplicative services. To improve the effective and efficient use of IT... workforce for the timely and effective planning and execution of the... Strategic Plan. Collectively, through more effective governance, management discipline, and execution... the Agency’s Mission in a more effective and efficient manner, NASA established...: AMO-15-8: Achieve savings through effective use of both Federal-level...: AMO-16-8: Achieve savings through effective use of both Federal-level... and increase the adoption of effective management practices by establishing cost... Areas • Developing Human Capital. • Empowering Effective Collaborations. • Opening R&D Assets. • Fueling Small... as the James Webb Space Telescope, the Space Launch System, and Orion... better-managed and more cost-effective acquisitions. JASD also provides an... International Space Station (ISS) to enable future space exploration, facilitate a commercial space economy... costsolar system. appropriately sized to effective space  1.4.3: Demonstrate conduct NASA’s Mission. transportation... International Space Station (ISS) to enable future space exploration, facilitate a commercial space economy... International Space Station (ISS) to enable future space exploration, facilitate a commercial space economy... support a safe and effective ISS platform in space. Annual Performance Indicator FY... U.S. commercial space transportation capabilities to provide safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit and the International Space... demonstrate safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. Annual Performance Indicators...-effective access to and from low Earth orbit and the International Space... 1.2.1.1 1.2.1.1 demonstrate safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. Green Green Planned... and Spitzer Space Telescopes and the European Space Agency’s Herschel Space Observatory have... living and working in deep space, Space Technology previously completed development of... in space, a critical enabling component for deep-space crewed missions and in-space... of new space technologies. Contributing Theme: Space Technology Contributing Program: Space Technology Research... crosscutting technologies in space. Contributing Theme: Space Technology Contributing Program: Space Technology Research... enhance education efforts on space exploration, aeronautics, space science, Earth science, and... Agency. Strategic Objective 3.3: Provide secure, effective, and affordable information technologies and... NASA’s Mission. Strategic Objective 3.4: Ensure effective management of NASA programs and... has made great improvements in effective virtual collaboration. The Agency is..., Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Stennis Space Center...: AMO-15-8: Achieve savings through effective use of both Federal-level...: AMO-16-8: Achieve savings through effective use of both Federal-level..., and products, leading to more effective stakeholder engagement. Annual Performance Indicator.... LSP provides safe, reliable, cost-effective, and on-schedule launch services... Space Communications Complex (CDSCC). Contributing Theme: Space and Flight Support Contributing Program: Space... Space Communications Complex (CDSCC) for Deep Space Station (DSS-36). Contributing Theme: Space and Flight Support Contributing Program: Space... humans and cargo to space in a cost-effective and timely manner. Other... Planning Strategic Objective 3.3 Provide secure, effective, and affordable information technologies and... Measures Strategic Objective 3.3: Provide secure, effective, and affordable information technologies and... and Planning Strategic Objective 3.4 Ensure effective management of NASA programs and... SMS will continue to ensure effective management of NASA programs and... Performance Measures Strategic Objective 3.4: Ensure effective management of NASA programs and... 3.1.6: AMO-15-8 - Achieve savings through effective use of both Federal-level...



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...the physics of space security The Physics of Space Security A Reference Manual... AM Page ix Section 9 SPACE-BASING 89 Space-Based Kinetic Ground-Attack... 151 Space-Based ASATs and Space Mines    151 Covert Space-Based ASATs    152 Space... commercial activities in space; Chinese and Russian perspectives on U.S. space plans; and... operate in space • denying adversaries the ability to use space assets • intercepting ballistic missiles using space-based interceptors... space-based systems—in particular, space-based constellations of ground-attack weapons, space... 8, 2005; Air University Space Primer, August 2003, http://space.au.af.mil...’ Panel on Weapons in Space, Ensuring America’s Space Security, September 2004, http...), both ground based and space based. Space-based weapons can be designed... can only be made from space. Moreover, space is much better suited... missile could also develop an effective capability to destroy satellites in... could control access to space by intercepting space launch vehicles, which are... from the ground or space; in this case, space-based ASATs may... space-faring nations would be capable of deploying space-based ASATs). A trailing space... ASATs. Space-faring nations have an inherent capability to deploy effective ASATs... space-faring nations. (Sections 11, 12) The technology required to build effective ground- and space-based ASATs is within the capability of any space... scheduled more quickly. Space Basing (Section 9) • Operating in space has a number of... shadow, and fast-moving space debris. • Space-based ground-attack weapons intended... 5° to 10°. As a result, the effective ground area with which the... observe. The radius of the effective region is a function of both..., and the radius of the effective ground area when the minimum... satellites at low altitudes the effective area is roughly half of... Page 35 higher orbits the effective area is not reduced as... shows the size of the effective observable area if the minimum... with the satellite is 10°. Effective observable region (Minimum elevation Maximum... in Space: Progress in Space Science, Technology, Applications, International Cooperation and Space Law... be strategically interesting for space exploration or for space militarization.15 Since... Oberg, “Will China’s Space Plan Skip the Moon?” Space News, May 24... the radius Reff of the effective observable region (as measured along... an explosive charge. To be effective, such weapons must hit the... for space missions such as the proposed military space plane. The space plane..., see the EADS Space Transportation website http://cs.space.eads.net/sp... http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/bss/factsheets/xips/xips.html...,” http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/bss/factsheets/702/ 702fleet.html..., “Hot Rod to Space,” Aviation Week and Space Technology, September 22, 2003... Space: Securing the High Ground,” Space.com, April 2, 2003, http://www.space.com... previous sections for space-based ground attack weapons, space-based boost-phase... engaged by the space-based interceptors. Proponents of deploying a space-based system... be the most cost effective way of foiling a space-based system. As... sufficient maneuvering capability to be effective in the face of intrinsic..., http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/bss/ what_is_a_satellite.pdf, accessed December...,” http:// www.ne.doe.gov/space/space-desc.html, accessed December 15...,” http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/bss/factsheets/702/ 702fleet.html... the real one.4 To be effective, the jammer or spoofer must... an attacker to predict how effective jamming will be. In some... might be able to conduct effective broadband jamming with low power... difficult in practice to make effective space-based jammers. For the jammer..., or conductive material can be effective defenses. Lasers are especially useful... the sensitive components, delivering an effective attack may be difficult. The..., and modest maneuvering may be effective against a non-homing attack (see... pellet cloud may be more effective over time at destroying a satellite... a nuclear weapon in space could be a highly effective terrorist-style attack by... ground or based in space. However, the Outer Space Treaty prohibits the... angular resolution multiplied by the effective focal length of the optics... with satellites: space-based anti-satellite weapons (ASATs), including space mines; simple... range of a target satellite.1 Space mines are space-based ASATs, but the... be more or less effective than their space-based counterparts, whether homing... be too small to be effective, especially if the satellite uses..., and International Space Information Service, Technical Report on Space Debris, UN (A/AC... ASAT would not be very effective unless the attacker can determine... an interceptor that is more effective and reliable, such as one... disk. Compare this to the effective area density that would result... sweeps through the cloud. The effective area density is 1.5ρ at the.... the physics of space security The Physics of Space Security A Reference Manual...



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... RULES OF SPACE PROJECT OF SPACE PROJECT The Physics of Space Security a reference... “1/2 Rule” 86 69 Section 9 SPACE-BASING 89 Space-Based Kinetic Ground-Attack... 151 Space-Based ASATs and Space Mines 151 Covert Space-Based ASATs 152 Space... launching satellites into space and maneuvering them once in space. They consider... commercial activities in space; Chinese and Russian perspectives on U.S. space plans; and... operate in space • denying adversaries the ability to use space assets • intercepting ballistic missiles using space-based interceptors... space-based systems—in particular, space-based constellations of ground-attack weapons, space... 8, 2005; Air University Space Primer, August 2003, http://space.au.af.mil...’ Panel on Weapons in Space, Ensuring America’s Space Security, September 2004, http...), both ground based and space based. Space-based weapons can be designed... can only be made from space. Moreover, space is much better suited... missile could also develop an effective capability to destroy satellites in... could control access to space by intercepting space launch vehicles, which are... from the ground or space; in this case, space-based ASATs may... space-faring nations would be capable of deploying space-based ASATs). A trailing space... ASATs. Space-faring nations have an inherent capability to deploy effective ASATs... space-faring nations. (Sections 11, 12) The technology required to build effective ground- and space-based ASATs is within the capability of any space... scheduled more quickly. Space Basing (Section 9) • Operating in space has a number of... shadow, and fast-moving space debris. • Space-based ground-attack weapons intended... 5° to 10°. As a result, the effective ground area with which the... observe. The radius of the effective region is a function of both..., and the radius of the effective ground area when the minimum... satellites at low altitudes the effective area is roughly half of... 34 T H E P H Y S I C S O F S PA C E S E C U R I T Y higher orbits the effective area is not reduced as... shows the size of the effective observable area if the minimum... with the satellite is 10°. Effective observable region (Minimum elevation Maximum... in Space: Progress in Space Science, Technology, Applications, International Cooperation and Space Law... be strategically interesting for space exploration or for space militarization.15 Since... Oberg, “Will China’s Space Plan Skip the Moon?” Space News, May 24... the radius Reff of the effective observable region (as measured along... an explosive charge. To be effective, such weapons must hit the... for space missions such as the proposed military space plane. The space plane..., see the EADS Space Transportation website http://cs.space.eads.net/sp... http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/bss/factsheets/xips/xips.html...,” http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/bss/factsheets/702/ 702fleet.html..., “Hot Rod to Space,” Aviation Week and Space Technology, September 22, 2003... Space: Securing the High Ground,” Space.com, April 2, 2003, http://www.space.com... previous sections for space-based ground attack weapons, space-based boost-phase... engaged by the space-based interceptors. Proponents of deploying a space-based system... be the most cost effective way of foiling a space-based system. As... sufficient maneuvering capability to be effective in the face of intrinsic..., http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/bss/ what_is_a_satellite.pdf, accessed December...,” http:// www.ne.doe.gov/space/space-desc.html, accessed December 15...,” http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/bss/factsheets/702/ 702fleet.html... the real one.4 To be effective, the jammer or spoofer must... an attacker to predict how effective jamming will be. In some... might be able to conduct effective broadband jamming with low power... difficult in practice to make effective space-based jammers. For the jammer..., or conductive material can be effective defenses. Lasers are especially useful... the sensitive components, delivering an effective attack may be difficult. The..., and modest maneuvering may be effective against a non-homing attack (see... pellet cloud may be more effective over time at destroying a satellite... a nuclear weapon in space could be a highly effective terrorist-style attack by... ground or based in space. However, the Outer Space Treaty prohibits the... angular resolution multiplied by the effective focal length of the optics... with satellites: space-based anti-satellite weapons (ASATs), including space mines; simple... range of a target satellite.1 Space mines are space-based ASATs, but the... be more or less effective than their space-based counterparts, whether homing... be too small to be effective, especially if the satellite uses..., and International Space Information Service, Technical Report on Space Debris, UN (A/AC... ASAT would not be very effective unless the attacker can determine... an interceptor that is more effective and reliable, such as one... disk. Compare this to the effective area density that would result... sweeps through the cloud. The effective area density is 1.5ρ at the...



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... 66 4.6 Space Transportation System 74 4.7 Space Sciences and Planetary Exploration 83 4.8 Space Technology... for effective Page | 6 12th PLAN WORKING GROUP OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SPACE... cost effective space infrastructure. 1.12 In the Expanding Horizons of Indian Space Programme (as depicted in Figure 1.1), the Space Based Application... satellites; undertaking space science and planetary exploration missions; strengthening space-based disaster... initiatives in space exploration missions such as Chandrayaan-1. The space technology institutions... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SPACE WG-14: REPORT 3.3 Space technology is a powerful... communication very reliable and cost effective. Satellite bus technologies are also... a highly reliable, ubiquitous and cost effective option. (e) Independent satellite navigation constellation... emerging EO applications. 3.10 Space Sciences 3.10.1 Space science missions to better... ejections and the consequent space weather. • The space borne solar coronagraph ADITYA... (6-8 years) 3.10.3 Space Weather and Solar-Terrestrial Physics: Space Weather is a manifestation... envisaged. 3.14 Human Space Flight 3.14.1 Indian Human Space programme is another... on the human body. The effective way of managing this is... for Indian Space Programme. “Space Vision India 2025” presented during 110th Space Commission... EO applications – Space based Information System for Decentralised Planning. Space Science and... OF SPACE WG-14: REPORT spectrum availability for such applications, effective and... system. (n) Continuation of an effective support to space based disaster management system... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SPACE WG-14: REPORT 4.3 Space Based Navigation System...). Most of the space faring nations and space agencies such as, NASA... and large demonstrative studies for effective utilization of the various sensors... inputs will be used for effective integration of forest working plan... and develop efficient and cost effective communication devices which could be... SPACE WG-14: REPORT 4.6 Space Transportation System 4.6.1 The main focus of the Space... 4.6.2 Global trend for Space Transportation systems among space faring nations is currently... up to 4 tons in a cost effective way, the existing class of... effective and reliable Reusable launch vehicle and also human in space mission... ISRO’s launch vehicle more cost effective and more capable. (j) Continue the... is intended to be a cost effective launcher for placing 4 ton class... are eco-friendly and cost effective. The major accomplishments in the... DEPARTMENT OF SPACE WG-14: REPORT 4.7 Space Sciences and Planetary Exploration 4.7.1 Space Sciences... would feed into future space exploration and space habitats. (k) Space Habitat - Some of... Policy of 2011 for its effective implementation 5.2.5 Currently, satellite images better... in the policy. 5.2.6 Space Legislation:Internationally the outer space activities are governed... Nations treaties on outer space activities namely Outer Space Treaty (1967), Rescue... towards realizing space systems and applications for national needs. Space activities in... Uses of Outer Space (UN COPUOS) to all space-faring nations, to... emerging space power which can achieve its goals in a more cost-effective... up joint activities in space science under International Space Exploration Coordination Group... technologies of Space and continued to provide the operationalised space based services to the nation. Indian Space Research Organization... take up challenges in Space. The Department of Space has started its... of operational space systems and development of advanced complex space technologies requires... essential for realizing the space systems in a cost effective manner. While maximal... in tracking the space debris to safeguard our space assets. • Second Vehicle... space infrastructure for socio-economic development of the country in a cost effective... form of application of space technologies in non-space projects, creation of... Indian Space Programme has paved the way for creating cost-effective space infrastructure... DEPARTMENT OF SPACE WG-14: REPORT APPENDIX-1 Department of Space DETAILED PERFORMANCE... OF SPACE WG-14: REPORT Building up large space systems like space stations, servicing and refuelling of satellites in space... human beings in space for building and maintaining space assets. Space has emerged... segment to ensure and enhance effective utilization of the remote sensing... regional and national scales for effective management of our resources. Various...-mission Acquisition and Processing; (ii) Effective Delivery Mechanisms; (iii) Real time... 11th Plan. Development of cost-effective 4T-12KW bus with capacity... are providing integrated space services to the rural community. Space Science Research... and Astrophysics, Space Weather and Weather & Climate. The Space Science research in... in Solar Physics (Space borne Coronagraph “Aditya”), Earth’s Near Space Environment (Twin..., indigenous development of space materials and components and Space commerce were the...



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... 17 Space Situational Awareness 18 U.S. Space Vulnerabilities: Assessing Risk 22 Other Space Progra... France and Space 35 Germ any and Space 36 Italy and Space 37 The United Kingdom and Space 38 Japan and Space 39 India and Space 43 Israel and Space... and implement the requisite space strategy, space policy, and space capabilities. This meeting... our space assets. A space declaratory policy would be an important element of space... Space Policy, emerging threats from S pa c e a n d U . S . S e c u r i t y viii Foreword space, the role of space... official statements supporting U.S. activities in space. •  U.S. space activities generally follow a few key... space for defense. •  Space-based systems enhance early warning and strike capabilities. Space... solid foundations for an effective wide-ranging space program and through existing... in space-related activities since its national space agency, the Indian Space Research... space without hindrance •  Encouragement of the commercial development of space •  Recognition of space... can be highly effective in destroying an object in space, verification of... in space. Pre sent U .S . Space S tr eng th s As the leading space power... global space spending (see Figure 1). Alongside increased commercial spending on space, government space budgets have accounted for a steadily decreasing share of global space... Space Report 2008 (Colorado Springs, CO: The Space Foundation, 2008). 31  The Space... the offensive systems much less effective than would be the case... would not be effective in destroying nuclear warheads in space, they would..., space-based interceptor layer. Space systems could provide on-demand, near 55  “Space Based Space Surveillance... of various space projects, including applied satellites, manned space flights, deep-space ­exploration, 98  Phillip Saunders et al, “China’s Space Capabilities... demonstrates the ESA potential in space. Space exploration represents yet another emerging... Begins Maiden Space Voyage,” Space.com. Available online at: http://www.space.com... survey of German space efforts. Germ any and Space Germany’s space program is... and Space Italian space efforts are coordinated by its national space agency, Agenzia... space.202 Nevertheless, Japan has solid foundations for an effective wide-ranging space...’s ‘Hope’ Lab To Blast Into Space,” Space Travel - Exploration and Tourism; available... in space-related activities since its national space agency, the Indian Space Research... emerge as a major space state. Israel and Space Israeli space projects are conducted... the PSLV is a more cost-effective launch method (costing less than... president believes that to be effective, U.S. deterrence policy must incorporate missile... December 13, 2001 which became effective per the provisions in Article... shown to be more cost effective than other options to complete... verifiable, enforceable, and effective arms control agreement banning “space weapons” is essentially... sector in space and space-related activities as a third element of U.S. space operations... space policy, including U.S. leadership in space and preeminence in key areas of space... space are rejected; international cooperation to extend the benefits of space, enhance space... space passage and operations in space without interference; purposeful interference with its space... space.” Underscoring the increasing importance of commercial space assets, the directive 22 Space support includes space launch systems.... Space control includes space surveillance, protection of space systems, prevention of an enemy’s effective use of space, and the negation of hostile space systems. Force... freedom of action in space. •  This requires effective deterrence, defense, and the capability to deny adversarial uses of space... of space faring nations with capabilities to attack U.S. space assets, space capabilities, including space... about weapons in space and addresses how an effective space-based defense can... of space and space defenses in advancing U.S. and allied security. To be effective... and put into place an effective, ironclad verification regime to guarantee... is a space weapon? Is it a weapon launched in space or into space? These... most technologically sound and cost-effective defenses subordinated to other interests...—technologies that produced the most effective, least costly ways to defend... kill-vehicles in space—had developed a cheap, effective means of destroying enemy... the development of the most effective missile defense today. The current... global leadership. The creation of effective defenses against ballistic missile attack... on space and missile defense to build support for U.S. space primacy, space control...