Ракета-носитель. Electron. [Редактировать]

РН Electron это двухступенчатая ракета которая разработана и запускается компанией Rocket Lab в интересах сегмента малых космических аппаратов. Данная ракета является первой которая использует электрические насосы в составе двигательной установки вместо ТНА. Первоначально Rocket Lab была Ново-Зеландской компанией, однако впоследствии перебазировалась в США. Таким образом, ее пуски мы относим к американским. 

Дополнительная классификация

#Наименования
1Все ракеты-носители

Новостная лента[Найти информацию в новостях] [Найти информацию в документах]

#Новостная лента.
12016-07-13. Компания Planet купила три пуска у Rocket Lab.
Новозеландская Rocket 12 июля анонсировала о том, что она выиграла три пусковых контракта от компании Planet, которая занимается разработкой космических аппаратов дистанционного зондирования Земли. Контракт покрывает три пуска космических аппаратов Dove, которые были построены компанией Planet на своем производстве в Сан-Франциско. Оба участника сделки не обнародовали информацию о стоимости запуска, однако ранее Rocket Lab сообщала о том, что она планирует осуществлять запуски своих ракет Электрон по цене около 4.9-5 млн. долл. Первый запуск спутника Planet должен состояться не ранее 2017 года. Кроме этого, Rocket Lab подтвердила существование контракта относительно 1-о гарантированного и двух опционных пусков от компании Moon Express.Тэги: Rocket LabMOON EXPRESS, INC.Electron
22016-08-22. Rocket Labs установила пусковую платформу.
Компания Rocket Labs отчиталась о завершении работ по строительству пусковой платформы на пусковой площадке в Новой Зеландии. Новая конструкция имеет массу около 50 тонн и по заявлению компании позволит производителю осуществлять запуск ракеты Электрон. К особенностям платформы возможно отнести то, что она позволяет производить вертикализацию ракеты. Кроме этого, компания в своем пресс-релизе не забыла отметить, что оборудование позволит ей осуществлять пуски ракет в достаточно высоком темпе и выводить аппараты на орбиты с наклонением от 38 градусов на НОО до ССО.Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
32016-09-27. В Новой Зеландии построили первый в мире частный космодром.
Компания Rocket Lab объявила о завершении строительства космодрома в Новой Зеландии. В качестве средства выведения с нового стартового комплекса оператор планирует использовать ракету Электрон, которая должна будет работать на сегменте легких и сверх-легких полезных нагрузок. Данная особенность безусловно наложила свой отпечаток на сроки строительства стартовых сооружений и привела к тому, что проект был реализован в сжатые сроки.Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
42016-12-14. Компания Rocket Lab объявила о готовности РН Electron к летным испытаниям.
Компания Rocket Lab объявила о начале проведения летных испытаний РН Electron. Согласно обнародованному плану первые испытания пройдут в начале 2017 года и будут предназначены для летной квалификации ракеты. Также компания подтвердила свое желание осуществлять запуски не только с территории Новой Зеландии, но и из США. Кроме этого, компания в очередной раз подтвердила, что стоимость пуска РН будет составлять около 4.9 млн. долл., а сама она способна выводить порядка 150 кг на 500 км орбиту.Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
52017-01-16. Компания Moon Express собрала необходимые средства.
Компания Moon Express объявила о том, что она сумела найти недостающие 20 млн. долл. и таким образом достигла требуемого на финансирование полета к Луне уровня в 45 млн. долл. В случае если у компании получится осуществить успешный запуск и приземление, а также 500-метровое перемещение КА по поверхности Луны, то она сможет рассчитывать на получение 20 млн. долл. приза от компании Google. В качестве средства выведения компания планирует использовать РН Электрон, а на космический аппарат (текущее название MX-1E) она планирует установить стороннее оборудование.Тэги: MOON EXPRESS, INC.Electron
62017-02-18. Rocket Lab доставила РН Электрон на стартовый комплекс в Новой Зеландии.
Частная компания Rocket Lab доставила РН Electron на стартовый комплекс в Новой Зеландии. В своем сообщении компания отметила, что данная поставка осуществляется в рамках подготовки к первому пуску, который должен будет состояться в течении ближайших нескольких месяцев. В связи с этим, в ближайшие несколько недель ракета пройдет полный цикл проверок с целью подтверждения летной пригодности. Стоимость пуска РН объявлена в размере 5.5 млн. долл. Выводимая РН масса ПН на НОО составляет 225 кг (150 кг на НОО с высотой 500 км). При этом, в целях поддержки производителя НАСА уже осуществило заказ одного пуска изделия в 2018 году. Тэги: ElectronRocket Lab
72017-03-21. Компания Rocket Lab объявила о получении дополнительных денежных средств.
Компания Rocket Lab объявил о привлечении дополнительных $75 млн. Данное финансирование предназначено для расширения масштабов производства РН. Общий объем привлеченных за четвертый раунд объемов финансирования составил $148 млн, а стоимость производителя, согласно собственным оценкам, составляет более 1 млрд. долл. При этом, в США компания производит двигатели ракеты и системы электроники, а сборка блоков происходит в Новой Зеландии. Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
82017-05-15. Rocket Lab установила дату первого пуска.
Компания Rocket Lab объявила о том, что она собирается 21 мая (стартовое окно 10 дней) осуществить первый тестовый пуск РН Electron. В качестве полезной нагрузки компания в ходе пусковой компании планирует использовать макет имеющий общее наименование "It's a Test".Тэги: ElectronRocket LabIt is a Test
92017-05-18. Компания Spaceflight купила пуск РН Electron у Rocket Lab.
Компания Spaceflight, которая специализируется на запуске малых космических аппаратов, объявила о заключении контракта с Rocket Lab на предмет пуска сверхлегкой РН Electron. Как отметили в компании, новая ракета является идеальной для сегмента запуска легких КА ДЗЗ поскольку она позволят компании существенно расширить размер своей абонентской базы за счет отсутствия необходимости в сборе большого числа заказчиков для запуска тяжелых и средних РН (к настоящему времени компания организовала выведение порядка 100 космических аппаратов).
В Spaceflight также отметили, что изделие компании Rocket Lab позволит выводить около 225 кг на эллиптические орбиты и до 150 кг на 500 км. солнечно-синхронную орбиту. Тэги: ElectronRocket Lab
102017-07-13. Moon Express обнародовала данные о разработке своего лунного посадочного комплекса.
Американская Moon Express объявила о том, что она к концу года планирует осуществить запуск своего аппарата (миссия будет носить наименование MX-1E) и крайне рассчитывает на выигрыш в конкурсе Google Lunar X Prize. Запускаемый компанией аппарат будет иметь около массу ПН около 30 кг, что должно будет потенциально позволить разместить на нем достаточное количество приборов. В качестве топлива посадочный модуль будет использовать уже давно эксплуатируемые керосин и перекись водорода, что должно будет в перспективе позволить разработчику значительно повысить надежность функционирования системы. В компании также подтвердили, что находятся на этапе создания и тестирования компонентов спутника, а в качестве средства выведения планируют использовать возможности РН Электрон. В компании также подтвердили запуск в 2019 году своего второго посадочного комплекса, что должно будет позволить компании заняться изучением возможности организации пилотируемого полета на южный полюс Луны. Помимо этого в компании обнародовали планы по созданию посадочных комплексов MX-2/5/9, который будут конструктивно состоять из двух, пяти и девяти модулей MX-1E.Тэги: MOON EXPRESS, INC.Electron
112017-08-07. Компания Rocket Lab обнародовала данные о прошедшем тесте РН Электрон.
Компания Rocket Lab пришла к выводу о том, что ее РН Электрон не достигла космоса в ходе первого тестового полета из-за ошибок в программном обеспечении наземного комплекса управления. При этом, в компании заверили, что ошибка является легко устраняемой, а следовательно компания намерена начать коммерческие пуски в конце 2017 года. согласно сообщению компании в ходе пуска в 25 мая ракета:
1. Достигла высоты полета около 224 км.
2. Прервала пуск из-за ошибок в наземной системе приема и обработки телеметрии.Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
122017-09-27. Rocket Lab обнародовала данные о своем втором тестовом пуске РН Электрон.
Оператор пусковых услуг Rocket Lab объявил о том, что в ходе проведения второго тестового пуска РН он будет использовать в качестве полезной нагрузки космические аппараты Planet и Spire. Запуск будет осуществлен с территории Новой Зеландии, а в качестве аппаратов будут использованы два КА ДЗЗ Dove и два КА Lemur-2 (предназначены для слежения за погодой и кораблями). Тэги: Rocket LabElectronPlanet LabsSpire PR
132017-11-30. Rocket Lab установила новую дату пуска РН Электрон.
Оператор пусковых услуг Rocket Lab установила дату повторного пуска РН Электрон. Согласно сообщению компании, запуск состоится в период между 8 и 10 декабрем 2018 года и, в отличии от первого пуска, он будет транслироваться в прямом эфире. Напомним что первый пуск ракеты данного типа был неудачным, но при его осуществлении не использовалась полезная нагрузка потребителей. На этот раз ракета будет выводить на орбиту два космических аппарата серии Lemur-2, КА Dove и один метеоспутник. Этот пуск станет вторым из трех, которые запланированы в ходе проведения летных испытаний нового средства выведения сверхлегкого класса. Тэги: Rocket LabElectron
142018-01-24. Rocket Lab обнародовала дополнительную информацию об успешном пуске.
Компания Rocket Lab объявила о том, что в ходе последнего запуска РН Electron она использовала дополнительную третью ступень, которая после отделения запустила свою двигательную установку (имеет наименование Cuire) для того чтобы замкнуть орбиту перед тем, как от нее отделились кубсаты. Ранее компания никогда не заявляла об этой разработке, однако отметила, что использование дополнительной ступени позволит предоставлять заказчикам более гибкие услуги. В частности компания рассчитывает при ее помощи осуществлять выведение спутников на различные орбиты. К особенностям новой ступени и ее двигателя в компании отнесли то, что установленный на нее двигательная установка произведена с широким применением 3Д технологий и использует нетоксичное монотопливо. Тэги: ElectronRocket Lab
152018-03-15. Компания Rocket Lab подтвердила первый коммерческий пуск своей ракеты.
Компания Rocket Lab обнародовала данные согласно которым ее следующий пуск будет полностью коммерческим и обеспечит выведение двух кубсатов серии Lemur-2 (оператор Spire Global). К особенностям пусковой компании отнесли то, что о нем стало известно за недели до пуска, а не месяцы и годы как это обычно происходит в случае использования более крупных ракет. В компании также отметили, что:
- их производственные возможности позволяют осуществлять запуски каждые 72 часа;
- в Rocket Lab планируют произвести порядка 100 ДУ Rutherford в год;
- первый коммерческий пуск состоится с территории Новой Зеландии. Следующий (четвертый) пуск будет осуществлен в интересах НАСА, а в качестве ПН на орбиту будут выведены КА: ANDESITE, CeREs, CHOMPTT, Da Vinci, ISX, NMTSat , RSat-P, Shields 1, STF 1, CubeSail 1, CubeSail 2, GeoStare, TomSat Eagle Scout, TomSat R3 и SHFT 1;
- в качестве одной из причин переноса части пусков на мыс Канаверал в компании отнесли более удачное географическое расположение. Тэги: ElectronМыс КанавералElectronСерия Lemur-2
162018-04-05. Rocket Lab определилась с датой первого коммерческого пуска.
Компания Rocket Lab объявила о том, что она выполнит свой первый коммерческий пуск РН Электрон в конце этого месяца. В качестве полезной нагрузки в компании будет использованы космические аппараты от двух не взаимосвязанных компаний (Spire и GeoOptics). Местом пуска выбрана территория Новой Зеландии. Пусковое окно будет открыто в течении четырех часов на протяжении двух недель. В своем сообщении оператор пусковых услуг не обозначил выведение при данном пуске четырех КА калифорнийской Swarm Technologies, хотя ранее компания и отмечала подобную возможность. Скорее всего это связано с тем скандалом, который произошел в США после того, как стартап осуществил не лицензированные FCC запуски КА при помощи РН PSLV.
Компания Rocket Lab известна тем, что она пытается достичь темпов запуска до 1 ракеты в 72 часа. Такой скорости компания планирует достичь за счет вертикальной интеграции производства и производства с использованием 3Д печати более 100 ДУ Rutherford в год. Тэги: Rocket LabElectronRutherford
172018-04-18. Компания Rocket Lab перенесла запуск РН Electron на более поздний срок.
Компания Rocket Lab объявила о том, что несмотря на то, что ее следующий пуск РН Электрон будет перенесен на несколько недель из-за технических проблем, тем не менее компания продолжает оптимистично смотреть на свои дальнейшие планы (один пуск в две недели) и продолжает рассчитывать на скорый рост своего бизнеса. К причинам переноса пуска в компании отнесли проблемы с контроллером одного из девяти двигателей первой ступени своей ракеты, однако по ее мнению трех недель компании вполне хватит на устранение недостатков, что приведет к тому, что запуск КА произойдет в рамках следующего пускового окна. Относительно полезных нагрузок все осталось без изменений и ракета будет выводить два КА Lemur-2 для Spire и наноспутник для GeoOptics (изготовитель Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems).Тэги: Rocket LabElectron

Технические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаЗначение
1Масса, кг12550
2Диаметр, метра1.2
3Первая ступень 1x1-ая ступень Electron
4Вторая ступень 1x2-ая ступень Electron
5Третья ступень (опционально), Кick stage1
6Масса ПН (ССО), кг150
7Высота, метра17
8Обтекатель
9Длина, метра2.5
10Масса, кг50
11Диаметр, метра1.2
12Топливная паракислород-керосин

Экономические характеристики

#ХарактеристикаДата измеренияЗначение
1Страна США
2Стоимость (пуска), млн. долл.4.9
3Стоимость (разработки), млн. долл.100

Перечень запусков ракетаносителя

#Наименование Дата пуска Ракета-носитель Космодром АппаратыТип
12018-0102018-01-21ElectronMahia PeninsulaНовая ЗеландияНовая Зеландия1xStill testing
СШАСША1xLemur-2 73
СШАСША1xLemur-2 72
СШАСША1xFlock
СШАСША1xHumanity Star
Запуск
22017-F0022017-05-25ElectronMahia PeninsulaНовая ЗеландияНовая Зеландия1xIt is a Test
Запуск

Надежность ракета-носителя



Найдено 1000 документов по запросу «Electron». [Перейти к поиску]


Дата загрузки: 2018-05-18
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0/5
... and theoretical background 2.1 Modeling of electron and phonon dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Magnetization dynamics... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Model Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Two temperature model: electron and phonon temperature dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 Many...-carriers interaction Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.5 Demagnetization via electron scattering in Gd: phenomenological model... [15], recent experiments using relativistic electron bunches from Standford Linear Accelerator... [12, 140, 151, 176] and electron-electron EY scattering [114]; (iii) laser... can occur via electron-spin, lattice-spin or electron-lattice-spin coupling... is currently discussed is the electron-electron scattering mediated by exchange interaction... electron at around the 5 1. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION (a) (b) Spin mixing (+q k , k ', n k ', n , ph Hot electron in Colder electron out E) out in n (+q , ph... momentum from the electron system. (b) Exchange scattering of a hot electron which in effect exchanges the spin orientation of the hot electron and the locally remaining electron at lower energy... incoming hot electron of opposite spin direction. While the hot electron relaxes..., the second electron takes up the energy of the hot electron. After... electron gas which is almost instantaneously lost (< 10 fs) [20]. A thermalized electron distribution [30] is then reached through inelastic electron-electron scattering events [141]. After the thermalization of the electron gas... dynamics between electron and phonon systems. 16 2.1 Modeling of electron and phonon... the electron population [26]. This collective electron motion is destroyed by electron-electron, electron-thermal phonons or electron-defect elastic... excited conduction electrons thermalize through electron-electron interaction and excitation of secondary... electron distribution fnt , which thermalizes within the thermalization time τth through electron-electron.... Electron and phonon Hamiltonian We explicitly write a standard Hamiltonian for electron and phonon system, H = He + Hee + Hph + He−ph . (2.1) The electron... cause an instantaneous electron thermalization to a well-defined electron temperature Te . The... and EF is the electron Fermi energy. The electron-phonon coupling term... redistribution of the hot electron bath, namely the electron diffusion process. This... electron temperature 500 400 lattice temperature 300 0 1 2 3 4 5 time [ps] Figure 2.4: Electron and... the electron and lattice specific heat constants, Ge−ph is the electron... [114], electron-electron inelastic exchange scattering [91], superdiffusive spin-polarized electron transport [19... dissipation mechanism, such as electron diffusion or electron-phonon coupling or (iii... include further parameters, as the electron-electron equilibration time τee [55] related... driven by the spin-electron, where the electron role is played by... magnetization dynamics. 6.2.1 Two temperature model: electron and phonon temperature dynamics We... diffusion 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 time [ps] Figure 6.4: Differential electron temperature ∆Te = Te (t) − T0 obtained... 2TM for Gd. Parameters electron heat capacity, γe electron-phonon coupling, Ge−ph... 5d electron system which forms a bath for the localized 4f -electron spin... electron-spin interaction where the spin system is represented by 4f electron system spin and the electron heat bath by... around the transient electron temperature difference ∆Te , then an electron temperature (time... the electron mediated demagnetization process. First of all we model the electron... = 250K -0.20 0 1 2 3 4 time [ps] Figure 6.9: Electron mediated magnetization relaxation calculated by... -0.15 0 1 2 3 4 time [ps] Figure 6.10: Electron mediated magnetization relaxation calculated by... considering only electron-spin flip coupling (dashed) and combined electron- / phonon-mediated... of the electron system. The typical correlation time for the electron system... [16] T. Balashov, A. F. Taka W. Wulfhekel. Inelastic electron-magnon interaction and spin transfer... 2007. 8 [83] F. A. Hertz and D. M. Edwards. Electron-magnon interactions in itinerant ferromagnetism..., J. Gudde, U .Conrad, V. Jahnke, and E. Matthias. Electron and Lattice Dynamics Following Optical... [90] J. Hohlfeld, S.-S. Wellershoff, J. Gu E. Matthias. Electron and lattice dynamics following optical... REFERENCES W. Eberhardt. Femtosecond modification of electron localization and transfer of angular..., O. Chubykalo-Fesenko, A. Melnikov, and U. Bovensiepen. Electron- and phonon-mediated ultrafast magnetization..., O. Chubykalo-Fesenko , A. Melnikov, and U. Bovensiepen. “Electron- and phonon-mediated ultrafast magnetization...



Дата загрузки: 2018-05-18
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0/5
.... 2. The Relationship of Scattering to Electron Density Fluctuations We first compute...: n0 qe m ε0 = = = = electron density electron charge mass of an electron dielectric constant of... the electron defined by:  q e2  1  σ0 = r0 sinχ =  2 sinχ  4π ε0 m c (3) 3 Figure 1. Scattering from electron... of the autocorrelation function of electron density fluctuations: V2 ρ(k,τ) = N 〈 n*(k,t) n(k,t + τ) 〉av (11... detail in the following sections. 3. Electron Density Fluctuations In the discussions... in electron density fluctuations. The contribution to these from a particular electron p becomes... average an electron repels other electrons thus creating an electron deficiency in its neighbourhood. In addition to the "electron dressing"the electron... we like, through its electron "dressing". The electron density fluctuation associated with... with a single electron: npe (k,ω) = (1 + χi) n0pe(k,ω) 1 + χi + χe (59) and for the electron density fluctuation...(k,ω) 1 + χi + χe (60) The total fluctuation of electron density is obtained as a superposition... increasing electron temperatures this maximum becomes more pronounced because the electron term...) X«1 and X=ω/kvth. With two overlapping electron Maxwellian velocity distributions at different... temperature and ionic composition by electron backscattering from the ionosphere and.... Fluids, 5, 776-788, 1962. Salpeter E.E., Electron density fluctuations in a plasma, Phys... components. 35 2.1.1. Electron plasma wave. To analyse the electron plasma waves, let... is close to the electron one. When the electron temperature is larger... drift as a function of electron temperature and electron density. Ion temperature was... left-hand panels show equivalent electron density variation (uncorrected for temperature...). 4.3. Electron heating by plasma waves. The first observations of very large electron... function of the electron density and of the electron E x B drift, where E is.... Figure 15. Electron temperature as a function of both the electron density and... all classical processes such as electron precipitation, heat conduction or classical... electron temperature increases are not related to increases in the electron density... an anomalous increase in the electron Pedersen conductivity. The physical interpretation... D. T. Farley, A theory of collision dominated electron density fluctuations in a plasma with... series, 1973. Igarashi and K. Schlegel, Electron temperature enhancements in the polar..., F.R.E. Forme, M.A.L. Persson, I. Häggstrom and J. Lilensten, Electron energization in the topside auroral.... V.B, C. Lathuillere, W. Kofman and G. Lejeune, Elevated electron temperatures in the auroral E layer... these parameters, the electron density ne, the electron and ion temperatures Te... νin  σ|| =  (8) Here νe, νin are the electron- and ion-neutral collision frequencies... particle precipitation which cause abrupt electron density enhancement in the E-region...) where αeff is the effective electron-neutral recombination rate [e.g. Schlegel, 1985... electron gas, the heat flow can be estimated from the measured electron... of the electron production rate is computed from measured electron density profiles... in the ionosphere create localized electron density structures with different scales..., F.R.E. Forme, M.A.L. Persson, I. Häggström and J. Lilensten, Electron energization in the topside auroral... (v e - v i ) = - Fie (4) where ϑei is the electron-ion collision frequency. The current... electron and ion edges, they were of low flux, and the electron...] have recently reported that the electron temperature enhancements can sometimes only..., S. A. Fuselier and J. T. Gosling, Ion and electron velocity distributions within flux transfer... probability of a substorm observation with electron spectra by polar-orbiting satellites... auroral westward traveling surges and electron precipitations, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 757... the largest electron- and ion-density concentrations. 228 The peak electron density... typical midlatitude daytime and nighttime electron-density distributions. Even at the... exponentially with increasing altitude. The electron collision frequency is dominated by... the electron temperature [∼ 103 K] and L is a characteristic scale length for electron-density... reflection from electron density inhomogeneities, are particularly applied to measure electron density... is partially reflected from D-region electron density irregularities, are attenuated differently... a vertical gradient or irregularities in electron density, partial reflection occurs, which... energetic particle precipitation. The maximum electron density was 8x1010 m-3, the spacing... width resulting from turbulence induced electron density variations should usually be... of a single electron 4π re2 [re is the classical electron radius]. Collis et... flow pattern, radiation, evaporation or electron density structures in the mesosphere... frequencies: [1] Steep gradients of electron density, [2] electron density irregularities caused by mixing... charged aerosols, [5] charge accumulation in electron clouds dressing multiply charged aerosols...



Дата загрузки: 2018-05-18
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0/5
.... The reduction in diffusivity allows electron density inhomogeneities to be maintained... in the electron density. Both mechanisms require an anomalously low electron diffusion... of the Chapman-Enskog Theory 3.2 Electron Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Analytical Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Numerical Analysis... different periods. . . . . Comparison of mesospheric electron density data from (left) polar... wavenumber of a 50-MHz radar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron density profiles for the two... speculative. 33 3.1 Plot of effective electron diffusivity versus aerosol number density... respect to the electron number density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Plot of effective electron diffusivity versus... impossible to explain with known electron generation mechanisms), but a manifestation of... also on the electron-neutral collision frequency and electron gyrofrequency. It is... periods. Figure 2.8: Comparison of mesospheric electron density data from (left) polar... calculated directly from the rocketderived electron density fluctuation power spectra, using... electron radius and Ne is the ambient electron number density. For a typical electron... as the ionospheric D region. The electron density fluctuations which are responsible... anomaly allows the maintenance of electron density inhomogeneities at smaller scales...: Enhanced Generation Mechanisms Generation of electron density structures in the mesosphere... Radar scatter Refractive index inhomogeneities Electron density inhomogeneities Generation Dissipation Neutral... Gravity waves Chemistry Localized recombination Electron diffusion Photochemistry Localized ionization Electrodynamics..., horizontally coherent structures in the electron density, i.e., a combination of weak turbulent... temperature profile where enhancement of electron recombination, water cluster formation, and... mesosphere and their influence on electron diffusivity. This development represents the... scales at which electron density perturbations can exist. Therefore, electron diffusivity is... of electron diffusion in the mesosphere. In the mesosphere, electron diffusivity is... mostly 3.2. ELECTRON DIFFUSION 45 much larger than the neutral molecules. 3.2 Electron Diffusion... net current yields Zj Γj = 0 j (3.29) 3.2. ELECTRON DIFFUSION 47 Multiplying (3.28) by... diffusivities except for the electron since the electron diffusivity is so much... the electron equation becomes decoupled from the composite equation. The electron diffusion... (electron and positive ion) is 2Di , (3.50) implies that the electron diffusivity... is proportional to the effective electron diffusion coefficient. Equation (3.50) means... r a = 1.9 nm Figure 3.1: Plot of effective electron diffusivity versus aerosol number density...-controlled electron diffusivity can dramatically affect mesospheric coherent radar scatter. 3.2. ELECTRON DIFFUSION...,000 Figure 3.2: Plot of effective electron diffusivity versus aerosol number density... investigate the effects of reduced electron diffusivity on isotropic turbulence scatter... of electron to neutral density. PMSE occur in a region where the electron... aerosols the rate of electron capture per unit electron concentration is [Natanson... of the four parameters (electron density, vertical electron density gradient, turbulence intensity... from in situ measurements of electron density fluctuations using a similar isotropic... dropped out momentarily. Completely fossilized electron density turbulence would present large... through which rocket probes revealed electron density inhomogeneities but no neutral... reflectivity from one-dimensional rocket electron density profiles are currently being... a Bragg-scale perturbation in the electron density. Something creates the perturbation... of electrons and (2) they generate electron density inhomogeneities by scavenging electrons... the electron yield peaks at E = Em . Unfortunately, the parameters of the electron... would take a combination of high electron density (∼ 1010 m−3 ), intense turbulence (∼ 0.2 W/kg.... 6.2 Observations Under our operating modes, electron density levels in the mesosphere... panels, particle precipitation increased the electron density in the upper mesosphere...−18 m−1 . For reference the ambient electron density extrapolated from nearby heights... partial reflecting structure, e.g., the sharp electron density gradients produced by the... effective electron diffusivity. We then examined the effect of reduced electron diffusivity... order to calculate the effective electron diffusion coefficient, Deeff = 1/τ κ2 . We chose..., H., Physics and Applications of Secondary Electron Emission, Pergamon Press, London, 1954..., Consistency of rocket and radar electron density observations: Implication about the... of mesospheric particles: Implications for electron density and particle coagulation, J. Geophys... study of energetic electron precipitation and D region electron concentrations over Ottawa during... radar echoes and rocket probe electron concentration measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 89...



Дата загрузки: 2018-05-18
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.38/5
..., including, cooperative electron-gamma-nuclear “shake-up” processes, electron-muon-beta-gamma... of electron connected energy ofwith the    . Qul Br imaginary part of electron... ji are the entire single electron 1 follows [23]: G (g ) = ImтMthe - 2projections; 2 j + 1) Imelectron...: adiation transition wavelength  nal amplitude electron Dirac electron functions: Dirac functions: wherecalculating... single Q energy ofof the  entire electron  . electron are the single j i Br Br... few quasiparticles 2 6 stale two quasiparticles – electron 2sprobability 2pthe ) the corresponding probability... example, ...J ...J  ~ (i.e. atomic system with one electron P( | j1 j 2 [ J ], j1 j 2 [ J ])  ( J ) P( | 1 1 )( j1 ) Ref.[12... electron 15 matrix of ained by system (i.e. atomic system with one electron...-electron bare potential: had pointed theapproximation one can use the one-electron... )+was (1+ a1 electron density r c (r), appropriate to the homogeneous nonrelativistic electron gas (the... .62 rwe / rCuse ) the standard electron electron screening we use standardthe where... ofthethetotal total C=F(F+1)-L(L+1)-I(I+1), (8) C=F(F+1)-L(L+1)-I(I+1), (Z ) 4 screening Bprocedure, based electron standard Z r / a B we useofthe 5 2 -effect (8) interaction... account the screenimportant transition many-electron asa a  (2e(I22QI(1 L21)( ()(12)(LL2...)L 3)3) I) 1)1) L(LL(L1 important inintransition totomany-electron pionic nitrogen, however it can... spread method of shape. calculation,  l=, electron radial functions; the indexes probabilities... Fermi (r)→r ( /||) [(E-1)/E]1/2 cos f The normalisation of electron  the permitted beta transition values... exchange particle-hole inter-electron interaction. The N-electron system are written and... contain F ( E , Z ) = 2 p22 ( g-11 + f+11 ) , (2а) N-electron V(r)=V(r|nlj)+V ex+V(r|R), 22pp +V(r|R), V(r)=V(r|nlj)+V (look... a multi-electron system {core201 solved. Formally they fall into one-electron Dirac... QED tion for electron,ofwhich the potential 500 electron, which moves in...-vibrational systems: relativisticrelativistic electron-waved self-vibrational are electron-waved characteristic distributed are characteristic for distributed electron-waved self-vibrational systems:ofwhich relativistic electron-wavedfor self-vibrational electron... variation electron-waved self-vibrational systems: relativistic electron-waved self-vibrational electron-waved self-vibrational systems: relativistic electron-waved... an electron-waved interaction spaceof N,an systems: length of anofinteraction electron-waved... parameter tic for distributed relativistic electron-waved selfbifurcation parameter proportional to... thein in electron phasephase 0 00 ) can captured. using a acollection tic electron θ(τ,θ ζ, τ,θ θphase... a vector in d dimensions, θ  ζ, τ,θ n space with electron phase 0phase (0[0; 2]) 0  phase can be... N.M., Titov V.N., Khramov A.E., Complex dynamics of electron microwave devices (nonlinear non-stationary... are characteristic for distributed relativistic electron-waved self-vibrational systems: electric... the optimal one-electron basis of the relativ12 the electron correlation whose 1 j 1 2 (3) ( ) ( 1  ) ( ) dr dr Ψ (r )Ψ r   Ψ (r )Ψ r  i 1 j k 2 l 1 2 2 1 2 1 searching for the optimal one-electron basis ijkl the electron correlation effects, whose... ofreasonable the electron correlation effects, whose for the optimal one-electron basis... describes electron the continuum state. When canr (Auger)  r12 matrix  J [5,8]: electron inelectron...-electron energy: scheme for calculating the probabilities of and the one-electron.... It is anaaccount for inter-electron correlation δ E ijij1  2 p 2 R 2 scheme for contributions... multi-electron with Let examine thesystem multielectron molcore of the closed electron...-polarization corrections, defines the oneto electron representation. soincalled multi-particle ones... 2 4  n f , 2 (5)equation andfor respectively optimal of electron orbitthat should numerically solved. In... basis of electron orbitals, which Unlike the many-electron atoms in theiscase...іал electron shells (for multi-electron gives the corresponding vacuum potential of electron shells (for multi-electron... polarization operator gives ofradiative electron shells (for multi-electron pionic atom). ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ , radiative... standard consideration collisional process many-electron Above the the theoretical concernstreating... task. be adequatelytheory treated theory electron-electron Coulomb which, of generalized of... theofoperator of electron-electron dberg electron on space of effective quantum Rydberg electron on...-electron atom is an essential consideration of the effects of electron correlations...) of multiatomic molecules. Key words: electron-γ-nuclear transition spectrum, multiatomic molecules...



Дата загрузки: 2018-05-18
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.56/5
... transfer . . . . . . . . . . 69 2.2 Energy diagram of electron exchange scattering on Mn2+ -ion...-VI semiconductors. . . . . . . . . . . 165 A.8 Mn 3d-electron exchange constants of (Cd,Mn... particle electron is of particular importance in this regard. The name electron... a semiconductor (narrow optical resonances, high electron mobility) with features specific for... m0 the free electron mass and Ψnk (r) the electron wave function in... of the electron spin with the magnetic field, generated by electron motion... flipping the spin of one electron (S = 3/2). They are labeled 4 P (L = 1), 4 D (L = 2), 4 F (L = 3) and 4 G (L = 4), corresponding... the conduction electron problem, the classical theory of the free electron gas... µe = µB (ge σ + l), where l is the free electron orbital angular momentum. However, this... an electron from the valence band to the conduction band an electron... ; for the Coulomb interaction between electron band electron H 28 At higher fields... part of the electron wave function |S, Sz . The electron spins in the... by the electron temperature Te . This distribution is achieved by electron-electron collisions in a time, which is inversely proportional to the electron... electron system and Mn-ion spin system with the reservoir of electron... shorter than the electron spin relaxation time, but exceeding electron-phonon interaction... magnetic ions significantly accelerate the electron spin relaxation time, still transfer... the electron exchange scattering. e le c tr o n s M n 2 + + 1 /2 + 5 /2 -1 /2 E ε1 ε2 -5 /2 k Figure 2.2 – Energy diagram of electron exchange scattering on Mn2+ -ion in external magnetic field. Electron... for ∆T = |Te − TM n | = 0, if nonequilibrium electron polarization exists. Consequence of this... flux due to ∆T = 0 generates nonequilibrium electron polarization. This can be described... the nonequilibrium electron polarization caused by the heat exchange between electron and... the effect of the nonequilibrium electron polarization: q˜ = 1 − λJS τspin q. λJS τspin... for slow relaxation of electron spins q. For fast electron spin relaxation the nonequilibrium λJS τspin 1, where q˜ ≈ λJS τqspin electron... equals the electron system temperature. The influence of the electron temperature on...-system vanishes for a completely polarized electron gas. 2.2 Mechanisms for spin relaxation... precesses the electron spin with the Larmor frequency Ω(k). If the electron wave... dependency on the electron wave vector. Therefore, the electron spin precesses during... electron precesses around an effective magnetic field, which depends on the electron... [Bir75]. It is based upon electron-hole exchange interaction ˆ = AS · Jδ (r) , H (2.23... electrons [Zut04]. Descriptive explained, the electron spin precesses about an effective... to electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements [Say85] and filled squares to electron.... The needed additional illumination for electron-hole relaxation processes exceeding the... with electron densities below 1010 cm-2 are nominally undoped, as this electron... the 2DEG temperature due to electron-electron scattering. As already mentioned in... is increased due to the electron-electron scattering with the photocarriers. For... CdTe and ZnSe for different electron concentrations. 1 0 5 Z n S e 0 1 1 0 E le c tr o n c o n c e n tr a tio... 10 epilayer 10 2.0 2.0 4.2 6.9 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.6 1.9 2.3 4.8 5.2 2.7 8.5 6.5 Mn content, electron concentra- SLR time number of... γ3 = 2.03 (T = 1.8 K) r γ1 = 2.45 γ2 = 0.61 γ3 = 1.11 (T = 4.2 K) p,q effective electron mass (m∗eff/m0 ) 0.099 (T = 4.2 K) d 0.147... quantum transport in a two-dimensional electron system under magnetic fields. I. characteristics..., M. D’yakonov, J. Cibert, S. Tatarenko and T. Wojtowicz. Electron and hole spin relaxation in...] V. I. Puller, L. G. Mourokh, N. J. M. Horing and A. Y. Smirnov. Electron spin relaxation in a semiconductor quantum..., S. H. Xin, L. Montes, H. Luo and J. K. Furdyna. Electron paramagnetic resonance of Mn2+ in... and G. Karczewski. Optical detection of electron paramagnetic resonance in CdMnTe single..., P. J. T. Eggenkamp, H. J. M. Swagten and W. J. M. de Jonge. Electron paramagnetic resonance knight shift in... 1−x Mnx B ductor Ee electron kinetic energy, energy of electron system EF Fermi... mef f bare effective electron mass m∗ef f renormalized effective electron mass mj z-component of hole spin ms z-component of electron... valence band P excitation density, polarization p electron momentum operator q boundary thermal conductivity... spin S, S (Mn) electron spin (operator, vector) sN E nonequilibrium electron spin Sz mean... relaxation between electron system and lattice τe−M n ,τM n−e typical time for electron exchange scattering on localized Mn-spins τe−phonon electron-phonon... access memory (DRAM) , 2 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) , 82 electron spin resonance (ESR...) , 2 tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) , 2 two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) , 54, 72, 94...



Дата загрузки: 2018-05-18
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.71/5
... TO CHAPTER 3 .............................................................................37 4. EFFECT OF ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION ON THE BIODEGRADABILITY... TO CHAPTER 14 ......................................................................... 161 15. ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT... 16 ......................................................................... 178 17. ACTIVITIES FOR ELECTRON BEAM REMEDATION OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTED... SEWAGE SLUDGE UNDER 10 MEV ELECTRON BEAM (EBEAM) CONDITIONS ........................................................ 212 20... 21. RADIATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS USING ELECTRON BEAM ACCELERATOR IN VIETNAM .............................................................................. 218... using high powered electron beam facility. However, presently no electron beam facility... easily transportable, mobile and modular electron beam machines for demonstrating applications... electron accelerator [10.6]. 10.3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 10.3.1. Design of Mobile Electron Accelerator This mobile electron beam irradiation system is... occupancy factors. – Operating condition of electron accelerator + Accelerating energy: max. 0.6 MeV..., the electron beam accelerator including the trailer have been modeled. • Electron source... trailer; an electron accelerator, which generates electron beam for electron beam processing; and... the electron accelerator is provided in the cabinet body. Since the electron... radiation types Electron Beam (0.6MeV x 33mA) B. Specification of Radiation Machine Electron beam accelerator (ELV-0.6M) Accelerating energy 0.6 MeV Electron beam..., N.W. Introduction and historical review of electron beam processing for environmental pollution..., Y., CHUNG, W., MAKAROV, I.E., PONOMAREV, A.V., PIKAE, A.K., Combined electron-beam and biological treatment of..., J., KIM Y., CHOI, J.S., MAKAROV, I.E. AND PONOMAREV, A.V., Electron beam treatment of textile dyeing... any additives using an electron beam accelerator. The electron beam irradiation seemed..., without any additives using an electron beam accelerator. 11.1.2. Experimental Commercially... also completely disinfected by an electron beam irradiation. A significant relative growth..., C.G., AZEVEDO A.L.,. Advanced oxidation process by electron-beam-irradiation induced decomposition of.... MUCKA, V., SILBER, R., KROPACEK, M., POSPISIL, M., KLISKY, V., Electron Beam Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls..., Y., DEROIDE, B., ZANCHETTA, J.V., Comparison between the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra obtained in... volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using electron beams, International Conference on Recent..., J.-C., KIM, K.-H., ARMENDARIZ, AL, AL-SHEIKHLY, M., Electron beam irradiation for mercury oxidation... [14.9]. Similarly, radiation processing, using electron beam accelerators and gamma sources... basis of electron accelerator for wastewater treatment. 165 TABLE 15.2 ELECTRON BEAM INSTALLATIONS ON THE BASIS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATOR Name of Installation Treatment Results 1. The electron beam... substances Biodegradable substances groundwater 2. The electron beam technology for wastewater treatment... 15.4. 1-Reception Vessel, 2-Pressure Vessel, 3-Electron Accelerator, 4-Scanner Device, 5-Reaction Chamber..., a powerful oxidizing species) and solvated electron (e‾aq, a powerful reducing species) species...-287. GEHRINGER, P., ESCHWEILER, H., FIELDER, H., “Ozone-electron beam treatment for groundwater remediation... S., CHMIELEWSKI A.G. , LICKI J., PAWELEC A., TYMINSKI B., ZBIGNIEW Z, “Electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT... J., CHMIELEWSKI A. G., ILLER E., ZIMEK Z., MAZUREK J., SOBOLEWSKI L., “Electron beam flue-gas treatment for.... Investment cost of 4.2 M € for an electron accelerator 2,5 MeV/100kW, transportable shielding... a transportable irradiation unit with electron accelerator of electron energies from 2.5 up to...ºC reference 17.3.4. Transportable facility for electron beam remediation of environment polluted... 50-95% power 100kW electron energy 2,0-5 MeV electron accelerator cost ≤2M€ not... Compact Transportable irradiation facility with electron accelerator Transportable irradiation facility is... the transportable electron beam irradiator can be used for various electron accelerators... mechanical tests. 18.3.2.5. Characterization Scanning electron microscope (SEM) by JEOL (Model... the use of electron-driven chemistry. An accelerator-generated electron beam can... will also reduce global warming. Electron beam technology potentially allows transformation... Air: Electron Beam Flue Gas Treatment (EBFGT) Accelerator-generated electron beams can... MEV ELECTRON BEAM (EBEAM) CONDITIONS C. PRAVEEN, P.R. JESUDHASAN, S.D.PILLAI National Center for Electron... impacted by a highly pulse-intensive electron beam radiation. The characteristic properties... SLOVAKIA 229 Fülöp, M. University Centre of Electron Accelerators Slovak Medical University Bratislava... America Pillai, S.D. National Center for Electron Beam Research Texas A&M University College...



Дата загрузки: 2018-05-05
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.06/5
... electron from its atomic orbital. Its values are given in electron volts... potential Elegrical resistance Electromotive force Electron Electronvolt Equivalent weight I ~ et alii... hr. Orbital electron emission Am-238 1.63 hr. Orbital electron emission Am-239 11.90 hr. Orbital electron emission Am-240 50.90 hr. Orbital electron emissionAlpha emission... 3 min electron capture (88%) α–decay (12%) At–203 7.4 min electron capture (86%) α–decay (14%) At–204 9.3 min electron capture (95.5%) α–decay (4.5%) At–205 26 min electron capture (82%) α–decay (18%) At–206 29 min electron capture (99.1%) α–decay (0.9%) At–207 1.8 hr electron capture (90%) α–decay (10%) At–208 1.7 hr electron capture (99.5%) α–decay (0.5%) At–209 5.5 hr electron capture (95%) α–decay (5%) At–210 8.3 hr electron capture (99.8%) α–decay (0.17%) At–211 7.2 hr electron capture (59.... Decay Mode electron capture electron capture electron capture electron capture electron capture electron capture alpha particle emission beta decay, electron...; a halogen group element; electron affinity 3.36359 eV; electronegativity 2.8; electron configuration [Ar] 3d104s24p5...) metallic element; ionization potential 8.994eV; electron configuration [Kr]4d105s2; valence state... is a transuranium radioactive actinide element; electron configuration [Rn]5ƒ107s2; valence state...) nonmetal element; atomic radius 0.77Å; electron configuration ls22s22p2; primarily forms tetravalent... (Group 11) metal; electron configuration [Ar]3d104s1; (electron configuration of Cu+, [Ar...; a radioactive transuranium actinide series element; electron configuration [Rn]5f76d17s2; most stable... 65 min Decay Mode electron capture, alpha decay electron capture alpha decay... of Decay Orbital electron Orbital electron Orbital electron Orbital electron Orbital electron Orbital electron Alpha decay...; lanthanide series, inner-transition metal; electron configuration [Xe]4f115d16s2; metallic radius...; a lanthanide group inner transition metal; electron configuration [Xe]4f65d16s2 (partially filled... Orbital electron capture, Alpha decay Alpha decay, Spontaneous fission Orbital electron capture... group elements; electron configuration [He]2s22p5; valence –1; electronegativity 4.0; electron affinity 79.5 kcal...; a lanthanide series rare earth element; electron configuration 4f75d16s2; partially filled f orbital...; a GroupIVA (Group 14) metalloid element; electron configuration [Ar]3d104s24p2; oxidation states...; a GroupIB (Group 11) coinage metal; electron configuration [Xe]4f145d106s1; oxidation states... energy is 36.1 kcal/mol; electron configuration [Kr]4d105s25p5; electronegativity 2.2; common...; a Group VIII (Group 8) transition metal; electron configuration [Xe]4f145d76s2; common valence... 18) element; inert gas element; electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6; valence state 0; an... series element; a synthetic radioactive element; electron configuration [Rn]7s25f146d1; valence +3; six...; an ƒ-block inner-transition metal; electron configuration [Xe]4ƒ145d16s2; valence +3; atomic...-transition element of actinide series; electron configuration [Rn]5f137s2; valence +2, +3. Isotopes... Decay Mode Orbital electron Orbital electron Orbital electron Alpha decay Orbital electron Alpha decay... characterized by partially filled 4ƒ subshell; electron configuration [Xe]4ƒ35d16s2; most common... transuranium radioactive element; actinide series; electron configuration [Rn]5ƒ46d17s2; oxidation states... series, transuranium, synthetic radioactive element; electron configuration [Rn]5ƒ147s2; valence states...; a lanthanide series inner–transition metal; electron configuration [Xe]4f56s2; partially filled...; heaviest of the noble gases; electron configuration 1s22s22p63s2 3p63d104s24p64d104f145s25p65d106s26p6; valence 0; one...; a Group I (Group 1) alkali metal element; electron configuration [Kr] 5s1; valence +1; atomic... 5) transition metal in vanadium subgroup; electron configuration [Xe]4ƒ145d36s2; valence state...) metallic element placed below indium; electron configuration [Xe]4f145d106s26p1; valence state... series element; a rare earth metal; electron configuration [Xe]4f136s2; valence +2, +3; atomic...; a Group IVB (Group 4) transition metal; electron configuration [Ar]3d24s2; valence +2, +3, +4; atomic... 6) chromium-group transition metal element; electron configuration [Xe]4f145d46s2; valence 0, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6; atomic... element; heaviest naturally-occurring element; electron configuration [Rn]5f36d17s2; valence states...; a lanthanide series rare earth metal; electron configuration [Xe]4f146s2; valence +2, +3; atomic...; a Group III B (Group 3 transition metal; electron configuration [Kr]4d15s2; valence +3; atomic...



Дата загрузки: 2018-05-18
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.38/5
... anniversary of the discovery of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance by E.K.Zavoiskii Book... anniversary of the discovery of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance made by E.K. Zavoiskii... method of measuring extremely fast electron-spin longitudinal relaxation; resonance spin... consider that Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer electron-phonon pairing prevails in those... suggest that repulsive electron interactions might even reinforce electron-phonon superconductivity, being... tumour extracellular pH monitoring using electron paramagnetic resonance: the effect of... the utility of DEER (double electron-electron resonance) distance measurements in proteins... through a series of steps involving electron spin diffusion, cross-relaxation and... dynamics of organic matter from electron paramagnetic resonance Izotov V.G.1, Sidorova E.Yu... evolution based on optical and electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is... results of special optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction studies, macro... in gypsum products studied by electron paramagnetic resonance Khasanov R.A.1,2, Nizamutdinov N.M.1, Khasanova... based on the standard Ferromagnetic/Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (FMR/EPR) technique... are particularly spectacular for electron-nuclear and electron-electron double-resonance techniques such... GHz electron spin resonance (ESR) for diagnostics and manipulation of the electron..., molecular electron spin qubits have been the latest arrival [1-4], although electron spins... this context and molecular optimisation, electron spin qubits are promising because... multi-frequency electron spin qubits in ensemble, in which electron and spin.... Recently, we have established the electron spin manipulation technology with arbitrary... pulsed ESR experiments including coherent electron-spin multiple resonance in chemistry... anticrossings. Recently direct observation of electron-nuclear sublevels anticrossings in LiYF4... sensitivity and resolution of highfrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to study...., Stationary and high-frequency pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance of a calcified atherosclerotic... conservation of solar energy and electron transfer processes [1]. Special attention is... photoexcitation of the investigated system electron spin polarization of the triplet... Three oxygen-vacancy defects with electron spin S=1 (i.e., the E'' centers) have long... ligands, undergoes a one electron reduction the transferred electron can be located at... x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Room and low temperature... transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic, nuclear pseudo quadrupole resonance methods and electron... and MnCO3 with coupled nuclear-electron precession. The predictions were successfully... itinerant electrons can cause the electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. Recently..., J. Ferstl, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Low temperature electron spin resonance of the Kondo... dynamics of YbRh2Si2 observed by electron spin resonance, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter..., I.I. Fazlishanov, Z. Hossain, C. Krellner, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Electron spin resonance of YbIr2Si2 below..., J. Sichelschmidt, C. Krellner, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Anisotropic electron spin resonance of YbIr2Si2, J. Phys... through the spin waves in electron subsystem [1]. This interaction becomes essential... the changes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (FeSproteins, EPR signals.... A strong correlation between the mitochondrial electron transport chain defects, superoxide radicals..., Russia e-mail: REremina@yandex.ru Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were... phonon scattering on the conduction electron g-factor in silicon A.A. Konakov, A.A. Ezhevskii... concentration dependence of the conduction electron gfactor in silicon is investigated... investigations of the electron g-factor are performed in conduction electron spin resonance... ε (0 ) (k ) and ε (k ) are unperturbed and renormalized electron energies, respectively, Re Σ ∗ (k , ε ) is the... term, which contains the single electron g-factor g (k ) , that should be considered.... 27–39. [3] S.A. Altshuler, B.M. Kozyrev, 1972 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Compounds of..., J. Ferstl, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Low temperature electron spin resonance of the Kondo... dynamics of YbRh2Si2 observed by electron spin resonance, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter..., I.I. Fazlishanov, Z. Hossain, C. Krellner, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Electron spin resonance of YbIr2Si2 below..., J. Wykhoff, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Why could electron spin resonance be observed in... state antiferromagnets with coupled nuclear-electron precession [3]. The predictions were successfully...)0.9(SrFe12O19)0.1 T = 300K Q-band ΔH = 830 Oe Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were... the relative importance of the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions for the...(aryl)(N-N)] radical specie with unpaired electron localised predominantly on the diimine... these conditions donor electron spins are fully polarized, electron and nuclear relaxation... anniversary of the discovery of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance by E.K. Zavoickii Book...



Дата загрузки: 2018-05-18
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0.42/5
... anniversary of the discovery of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance by E.K.Zavoiskii Book... anniversary of the discovery of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance made by E.K. Zavoiskii... method of measuring extremely fast electron-spin longitudinal relaxation; resonance spin... consider that Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer electron-phonon pairing prevails in those... suggest that repulsive electron interactions might even reinforce electron-phonon superconductivity, being... tumour extracellular pH monitoring using electron paramagnetic resonance: the effect of... the utility of DEER (double electron-electron resonance) distance measurements in proteins... through a series of steps involving electron spin diffusion, cross-relaxation and... dynamics of organic matter from electron paramagnetic resonance Izotov V.G.1, Sidorova E.Yu... evolution based on optical and electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is... results of special optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction studies, macro... in gypsum products studied by electron paramagnetic resonance Khasanov R.A.1,2, Nizamutdinov N.M.1, Khasanova... based on the standard Ferromagnetic/Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (FMR/EPR) technique... are particularly spectacular for electron-nuclear and electron-electron double-resonance techniques such... GHz electron spin resonance (ESR) for diagnostics and manipulation of the electron..., molecular electron spin qubits have been the latest arrival [1-4], although electron spins... this context and molecular optimisation, electron spin qubits are promising because... multi-frequency electron spin qubits in ensemble, in which electron and spin.... Recently, we have established the electron spin manipulation technology with arbitrary... pulsed ESR experiments including coherent electron-spin multiple resonance in chemistry... anticrossings. Recently direct observation of electron-nuclear sublevels anticrossings in LiYF4... sensitivity and resolution of highfrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to study...., Stationary and high-frequency pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance of a calcified atherosclerotic... conservation of solar energy and electron transfer processes [1]. Special attention is... photoexcitation of the investigated system electron spin polarization of the triplet... Three oxygen-vacancy defects with electron spin S=1 (i.e., the E'' centers) have long... ligands, undergoes a one electron reduction the transferred electron can be located at... x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Room and low temperature... transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic, nuclear pseudo quadrupole resonance methods and electron... and MnCO3 with coupled nuclear-electron precession. The predictions were successfully... itinerant electrons can cause the electron spin resonance (ESR) signals. Recently..., J. Ferstl, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Low temperature electron spin resonance of the Kondo... dynamics of YbRh2Si2 observed by electron spin resonance, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter..., I.I. Fazlishanov, Z. Hossain, C. Krellner, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Electron spin resonance of YbIr2Si2 below..., J. Sichelschmidt, C. Krellner, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Anisotropic electron spin resonance of YbIr2Si2, J. Phys... through the spin waves in electron subsystem [1]. This interaction becomes essential... the changes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (FeSproteins, EPR signals.... A strong correlation between the mitochondrial electron transport chain defects, superoxide radicals..., Russia e-mail: REremina@yandex.ru Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were... phonon scattering on the conduction electron g-factor in silicon A.A. Konakov, A.A. Ezhevskii... concentration dependence of the conduction electron gfactor in silicon is investigated... investigations of the electron g-factor are performed in conduction electron spin resonance... ε (0 ) (k ) and ε (k ) are unperturbed and renormalized electron energies, respectively, Re Σ ∗ (k , ε ) is the... term, which contains the single electron g-factor g (k ) , that should be considered.... 27–39. [3] S.A. Altshuler, B.M. Kozyrev, 1972 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Compounds of..., J. Ferstl, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Low temperature electron spin resonance of the Kondo... dynamics of YbRh2Si2 observed by electron spin resonance, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter..., I.I. Fazlishanov, Z. Hossain, C. Krellner, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Electron spin resonance of YbIr2Si2 below..., J. Wykhoff, C. Geibel, F. Steglich, Why could electron spin resonance be observed in... state antiferromagnets with coupled nuclear-electron precession [3]. The predictions were successfully...)0.9(SrFe12O19)0.1 T = 300K Q-band ΔH = 830 Oe Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were... the relative importance of the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions for the...(aryl)(N-N)] radical specie with unpaired electron localised predominantly on the diimine... these conditions donor electron spins are fully polarized, electron and nuclear relaxation... anniversary of the discovery of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance by E.K. Zavoickii Book...



Дата загрузки: 2018-05-18
Скачать документ
Скачать текст
0/5
..., there’s an electron for every proton, but the electron mass is only... constituents and are therefore distinguishable: electron scattering experiments would see a di... distinguish nuclear recoils (signal) from electron recoils (background). The interaction between.... Electron recoils dump their energy over a longer distance, because the recoiling electron...-strip detectors, and can measure electron energies with a precision of 5.5% from... ground level (n ≃ 1.0003), a 25 MeV electron will produce Cherenkov radiation, but.... Such isotopes can decay by electron capture, A X + e− → A X′ + ν , but not by e Z Z−1 A X′ + e+ + ν . X → β + decay... expected if some electron reattachment and subsequent electron-capture decay is taking... photon energy scales with the electron energy (see below); relativistic bremsstrahlung... of the electron parallel to direction of the electron is not much... above derivation was for a single electron with a fixed velocity v and impact... (this is for a single electron) and γ (the electron is non-relativistic). For... to Z 2 ni E where E is the electron kinetic energy. Relativistic electrons, in... on b gives, for a single relativistic electron, P (E) = Z 2 e6 ni E 12π 3 ǫ30 m2e... interaction of the incoming electron with the electron cloud of the atom... velocity distribution of the relevant electron population. In the non-relativistic... to the electron energy, as shown in equation (2.27), the electron energy...fficult to construct high-energy electron accelerators than proton accelerators). The... the Thomson cross-section for electron scattering, and B 2 /2µ0 = 12 ǫ0 c2 B 2 is... magnetic fields. For a non-relativistic electron, γ ≃ 1 in equation (2.39) and the... give elliptical polarisation. If the electron is mildly relativistic, the symmetry... 2.35. Synchrotron radiation As the electron’s velocity increases and it becomes... beaming, the radiation from a relativistic electron is only visible for a fraction... an angle 2/γ, i.e. a fraction 1/πγ of the electron’s gyratory period. = 1 γ3ω = r 1 γ2ω (2.43) g where ωg = γωr is..., synchrotron radiation from a single relativistic electron is emitted as a series of... of polarisation rotates as the electron’s velocity precesses about the direction... vectors are radiation. As the electron velocity precesses around the magnetic... and parallel polarisation for a single electron is therefore j⊥ = j 3 ∞ 0 [F (x) ∞ 0 [F (x) + G(x)] dx Γ( 37 )Γ( 32... at angular frequency ω for a single electron is Π(ω) = j⊥ (ω) − j (ω) G(x) = . j⊥ (ω) + j (ω) F (x) (2.52) In order to... over x, weighted appropriately by the electron spectrum. For a power law spectrum... a relativistic gas). Assuming that this electron radiates at frequencies ∼ γ 2 νg , so that... of a low-energy photon off a highenergy electron (as opposed to ordinary Compton... that the underlying physics—a relativistic electron interacting with an ambient electromagnetic... inverse Compton spectrum from a single electron. For a power law distribution of... an electron from the channel wall, and this secondary electron is then... Longair[171] section 9.7. The moving electron corresponds to a current density J. If... between r and J, i.e. between r and the electron’s velocity vector. In a non-magnetic... analyse showers with other progenitors. Electron showers may be statistically distinguished... published; MAGIC has presented an electron energy spectrum at conferences[256... for neutrino-nucleon (νN ) and neutrino-electron (νe) interactions, separated by flavour, from... and Burgess[347], distinguished between electron-only events (associated with Type... relation α = 12 (δ − 1) where δ is the electron spectral index, this is a good... synchrotron radiation losses deplete the electron population fast enough that the... electrons do, and therefore the electron population quickly becomes depleted at... typical spectral index 0–0.3, requires an electron energy spectral index of 1–1.6, which... section 2.3.5, synchrotron radiation from an electron of energy E is emitted at... cyclotron frequency, and a power-law electron spectrum, N (E) ∝ E −δ , leads to a powerlaw synchrotron... density Umag = B 2 /2µ0 . If such an electron emits synchrotron radiation for some... the circumburst medium. At νa the electron energy distribution is probably roughly... hν/c, so the radiation pressure per electron at distance r is LσT , Fp = σT nγ hν/c = 4πr2...) depends on assumptions about the electron distribution, specifically the minimum... X-ray synchrotron radiation, implying local electron acceleration; unlike the FR I jets... that γp = 1 + (γe − 1)me /mp , which for electron γ factors of order 10 results... sources, indicating high levels of electron acceleration; there is clear evidence... from non-relativistic electron . 78 from relativistic electron . . 78, 80 286 INDEX... cosmology . . . . . . . 8–17 Eddington luminosity . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 electron capture decay in cosmic rays... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85, 85 for power-law electron spectrum 86 self-absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . 87...-ray electrons . . . 85 from single electron . . . . . . . . . 83 X-ray from PWNe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197...